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Starnes, UPDATED The Practice of Statistics, 6e, Chapter 2
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (11)
Percentile
The šth percentile of a distribution is the value with š% of observations less than or equal to it.
Cumulative relative frequency graph
Plots a point corresponding to the percentile of a given value in a distribution of quantitative data. Consecutive points are then connected with a line segment to form the graph.
Standardized score (z-score)
For an individual value in a distribution, tells us how many standard deviations from the mean the value falls, and in what direction.
Density curve
Models the distribution of a quantitative variable with a curve that: Is always on or above the horizontal axis; Has area exactly 1 underneath it. The area under the curve and above any interval of values on the horizontal axis estimates the proportion of all observations that fall in that interval.
Mean of a density curve
The point at which the curve would balance if made of solid material.
Median of a density curve
The equal-areas point, the point that divides the area under the curve in half.
Normal distribution
Described by a symmetric, single-peaked, bell-shaped density curve called a Normal curve.
Normal curve
Is completely specified by two parameters: its mean Ī¼ and standard deviation Ļ.
Empirical rule
The result in a Normal distribution with mean Ī¼ and standard deviation Ļ: Approximately 68% of the observations fall within Ļ of the mean Ī¼.; Approximately 95% of the observations fall within 2Ļ of the mean Ī¼.; Approximately 99.7% of the observations fall within 3Ļ of the mean Ī¼.
standard Normal distribution
The Normal distribution with mean 0 and standard deviation 1.
Normal probability plot
A scatterplot of the ordered pair (data value, expected z-score) for each of the individuals in a quantitative data set. That is, the x-coordinate of each point is the actual data value and the y-coordinate is the expected z-score corresponding to the percentile of that data value in a standard Normal distribution.
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