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psy chapter 6
Terms in this set (44)
What two tests are these differences from?
○ Multiple-choice versus open-ended format
○ Objective machine scoring versus examiner scoring
○ Group versus individualized administration
○ Applications in screening versus remedial planning
○ Huge versus merely large standardization samples
group tests and individual tests
In what type of tests does the examiner plays a minimal role that is restricted largely to reading instructions and enforcing time limits?
What test excel as aids in the diagnosis and remediation of individual learning difficulties, whereas group intelligence tests are more commonly used for mass screening in the furtherance of institutional decision making?
traditional intelligence tests
What tests are generally standardized on ultra-large samples-- hundreds of thousands of subjects instead of just the few thousand carefully selected cases used with individual tests?
What test is is a recent group intelligence test designed to be a paper-and-pencil equivalent of the WAIS-R?
Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-II (MAB-2;Jackson, 1998)
What test is a highly respected instrument ( now replaced by the WAIS-III), in its time the most widely used of the available adult intelligence tests?
What test is a reasonably good measure of general intelligence that has found widespread use in research?
the venerable SILS
What is this a description of?
○ The answer to this dilemma is a multilevel battery, a series of overlapping tests. In a multilevel battery, each group test is designed for a specific age or grade level, but adjacent tests possess some common content. Because of the overlapping content with adjacent age or grade levels, each test possesses a suitably low floor and high ceiling for proper assessment of student at both extremes of ability. In addition, multilevel batteries usually provide a much desired continuity in the abilities measured. Furthermore, multilevel batteries generally employ highly comparable normative samples at the successive levels.
The Cognitive Abilitites Test (CogAT)
What test was co-normed (standardized concurrently_ with two achievement tests, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the Iowa Tests of Educational Development. Concurrent standardization with achievement measures is a common and desirable practice in the norming of a multilevel intelligence tests( Battery) It is important because you are looking at ability like its intelligence ?
For what test is the reliability exceptionally good? Over time the scores are going to be pretty consistent.
Fort what test does the manual provide a wealth of information on content , criterion-related, and construct validity of the CogAT; we summarize only the most pertinent points here?
What test is very well constructed sophisticated test, has good reliability and good validity, if wanting to do an estimate of IQ, it is very good , it is 3 hours long?
What test is a nonverbal measure of fluid intelligence first conceived in the 1920s by the prominent measurement psychologist Raymond B. Cattell?
CFIT (culture fair intelligence test
What test is this a description of?
§ Scale 1: is for use with mentally defective adults and children ages 4 to 8
§ Scale 2 is for adults in the average range of intelligence and children ages 8 to 13
§ Scale 3 is for high-ability adults and for high school and college students.
What test is ut is the CFIT a culture-fair test, as its title proclaims? One professed goal of this instrument was to "minimize irrelevant influences of cultural learning and social climate" and thereby produce a "cleaner separation of natural ability from specific learning" (IPAT, 1973). Unfortunately, the available evidence indicates that the ____ is no more successful than traditional measures in the pursuit of a culturally fair method for measuring intelligence (Koch, 2084).?
What test is this a description of?
highly speeded test. Each form of Scales 2 and 3 takes about 30 minutes to administer, but only 12.5 minutes is devoted to actual test taking.
§ Part of that time is for instruction and getting everything ready, so time is very important.
§ Only half of the time is actual testing time
§ Stick with the rules
What test is a worthy test, it is badly in need of revision and renorming?
What test is is particularly valuable for the supplemental testing of children and adults with hearing, language, or physical disabilities?
the RPM (Ravens Progressive Matricies)
What may include several components: extra practice on testlike materials, review of fundamental concepts likely to be covered by a test, and advice about optimal test-taking strategies?
What is this a summary of?
he first point to make is that intelligence tests are merely samples of what people know and can do. We must not reify intelligence and overvalue intelligence tests. Tests are never samples of innate intelligence or culture-free knowledge. All knowledge is based in culture and acquired over time. ??
summary of culture-fair test
Is there really a such thing as culture-fair tests?
What two guys made these studies?
○ Studies with the GRE ( Graduate Record Exam) also indicate that large coaching gains can be posted under some circumstances. ________ (1998) provided seven weeks of highly concentrated coaching on the GRE for 15 college students and found an average improvement of 145 points on the combined GRE-Verbal + GRE-Quantitative score. Similarly, _______ (1996) reported an average gain of 116 points on the combined GRE test score for 18 undergraduates. What makes these two studies stand out is not only the large gains reported but also the incredible intensity of coaching provided--between 100 and 140 hours of rigorous preparation!
Groeger & Vunovich
Disagreements about what are perpetuated because adversaries in this debate fail to clarify essential terminology?
What two terms are commonly refer to markedly different aspects of a test-bias debate?
test bias and test fairness
A test is biased if not all of the subpopulation fall in what?
the same regression line
As interpreted by most authorities in this field, ____________ refers to objective statistical indices that examine the patterning of test scores for relevant subpopulation?
The definition of what invokes what might be referred to as the criteria of homogenous regression?
A test is unbiased if what?
the results for all relevant subpopulations cluster equally well around a single regression line.
In the American tradition of free and open competition, the what dictates that, without exception, the best qualified candidates should be selected for employment, admission, or other privilege?
ethical stance of unqualified individualism
T or F
If a test is not baised it still could not be fair, you can choose not to use it.
A substantial genetic component to intelligence has been proved by decades of adoption studies, familial research, and twin projects, even though individual studies may be faulted for some flaw, the massive amount of data shows that....?
IQ has a good a hereditability quotient
According to what is a consistent downward trend in IQ is a result of the cumulative effects of environmental disadvantages in factors related to mental development.
§ Over ten year period African Americans lost 1 point per year in IQ
§ This would explain the 15 point difference now a days
Cumulative deficit hypothesis
Studies show that intervention and enrichment can do what ?
boost IQ in children at risk for school failure and mental retardation
What is shown if the child's environment does not encourage positive attitudes and continued learning?
initial positive benefits diminish over time
What is this trying to say? ○ Critics also wonder if the programs merely teach children how to take tests without affecting their underlying intelligence very much ( Jensen, 1981).
they are teaching them to test good instead of actually improving their education
what is shown in children with FAS?
Intelligence is markedly lower
What are these sings of?
1. Prenatal and/ or postnatal growth retardation-- weight below the tenth percentile after correcting for gestational age
2. Central nervous system dysfunction-- skull or brain malformations, mild to moderate mental retardation, neurological abnormalities, and behavior problems
3. Facial dysmorphology-- widely spaced eyes, short eyelid openings, small up-turned nose, thin upper lip, and minor ear deformities ( Clarren & Smith, 1978; Sokol & Clarren, 1989)
FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
How much alcohol does someone need to drink in order for FAS to happen?
it can happen w/ any amount of alcohol, doesn't have to be the full amount
What is the most efficient research method for studying age changes in ability?
what combines cross-sectional and longitudinal methodologies and is a research method for studying age changes in ability?
§ Every time you do a cross sectional study there is going to age related decrements, there's certain abilities that are going to decline after age 35 what are they?
mostly the speed related stuff, vocab you will continue to learn over time
What does it mean when success of cross sectional studies revealed that there ar einner generational differences?
o whoever has been born most recent are going to have a higher score than those that were born in the past because they have more opportunity to learn stuff due to more access to more information
In contrast to the moderately pessimistically finding in cross sectional studies what did we first think?
we thought you kep getting smarter until you were 25 and then you got stupider, this is not the cae, you still continue to learn thought your life even at 60+unless you have dementia or other disease process
What is this trying to get across?
○ On This issue, common sense appears to be incorrect. Flynn (1984, 1987, 1994) has charted the standardization data from the successive editions of the Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler tests from 1932 to 1981 and found that each edition established a higher standard than its predecessor (Table 6.6). The total gain amounts to an apparent rise in mean IQ of 13.8 points. Thus, a person who earned on average, an IQ of 114 in 1932! A similar rising performance has been observed in many other industrialized nations using such tests as Raven's Progressive Matrices (Flynn, 1987).
if it is IQ keep standardizing it
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