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Chemistry HL Medicine and Drugs
Originally created for the quizes but will be edited shortly to reflect more test-type questions
Terms in this set (169)
Generally a drug or medicine is any chemical which does what?
1. Alters incoming sensory sensations
2. Alters mood or emotions
3. Alters the physiological state, including consciousness, activity level, or co-ordination
The method of administering a drug determines what?
The route taken and the speed with which it is absorbed into the blood
What are the four main methods of administering a drug?
By mouth, oral; inhalation; through the anus, rectal; and by injection, parentheral. However, drugs can also be applied topically
What are the three different method of injection?
Intramuscular, into a muscle; subcutaneous, directly under the skin; and intravenous, into a vein, which has the most rapid effect
What is the LD50?
The lethal dose required to kill 50% of the test animal population
What is the ED50?
The dose required to bring about a noticeable effect in 50% of the test animal population
What is a therapeutic index?
Give an example of risk-to-benefit ratio
If an effective treatment is found for a life threatening disease then a high risk from side effects will be more acceptable
In what part of the body does digestion begin?
What is the enzyme present in saliva which digests food?
Where does most of the digestive process take place?
In the stomach
What do the cells of stomach lining secrete?
Mucus, pepsinogen, and hydrochloric acid, which are collectively known as gastric juices
What is the precursor for the enzyme pepsin which breaks down proteins into peptides?
What is the approximate pH range of the stomach?
1.5 to 2.5
The wall of the stomach is protected from the action of stomach acid by what?
A lining of mucus
The discomfort caused by excess acid is known as what?
What may cause indigestion?
5. Eating certain types of food for some people
What drug can irritate stomach lining and cause ulceration?
What are used to combat excess stomach acid?
What are antacids essentially?
Milk of magnesia if a combination of what?
Magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide
How do antacids work?
1. Neutralizing the acid
2. Preventing inflammation
3. Relieving pain and discomfort
4. Allowing the mucus layer and stomach lining to mend
What is a typical neutralization reaction?
Antacid(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(aq) --> Salt(aq) + Water + Carbon Dioxide(if the antacid had carbon)
What is a side effect of magnesium antacids?
What are side effects of aluminum compounds?
2. Interfering with the absorption of phosphate and causing bone damage
What is a side effect of sodium hydrogen carbonate?
Carbon dioxide gas, which may cause bloating and belching
What are antacids commonly combined with?
Alginates and anti-foaming agents
What does an alginate do?
It floats on the contents of the stomach to produce a neutralizing layer
What does an alginate prevent?
What are anti-foaming agents used for?
To prevent flatulence
What is the most common anti-foaming agent?
What is the term for a painkiller?
What was the original analgesic?
The bark of the willow tree
For what disease was willow bark used?
What is the active ingredient in willow bark?
What is the term for a fever depressant?
What were the side effects of salicylic acid?
Irritation of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach membranes
What is the brand name of the ethanoate ester of salicylic acid?
How does aspirin work?
By blocking the enzyme prostaglandin synthase from forming at the site of the injury or pain
What does prostaglandin synthase do?
Helps to synthesize prostaglandins, which produce fever and swelling and transmit pain signals from the site of injury to the brain
Aside from use as an analgesic, what are other uses of aspirin?
1. Anti-inflammatory: Can be taken for arthritis or rheumatism
2. Prevent blood clots, strokes, and heart attacks
3. Prevent prostate cancer
What are the undesirable side effects of aspirin?
1. Bleeding in the lining of the stomach
2. Bronchial asthma for those with allergies to it
3. Reye's Disease, a potentially fatal liver and brain disorder, in children under twelve
What are the risks of exceeding the safe dose of aspirin?
Acidosis due to a lowering of the pH of the blood
What is the chemical name of tylenol?
What is the chemical name of advil?
Why is paracetamol preferred to aspirin as a pain reliever in young children?
Its side effects are less problematic
Overdose of paracetamol can cause what?
1. Brain damage
2. Permanent damage to the liver and kidneys
What are strong analgesics used to treat?
Severe pain caused by:
3. Heart attack
4. Chronic diseases
How do strong analgesics work?
By interfering temporarily with receptor sites in the brain, thus blocking pain signals within the brain and spinal chord
What is the active area of strong analgesics?
A benzene ring and amine group
What are naturally occurring strong analgesics?
Morphine and codeine, which comes from the opium poppy
What is a semi-synthetic strong analgesic?
What is a synthetic strong analgesic?
What is a difference between heroin and morphine?
Heroin is both a more powerful painkiller and more addictive
What is an issue with all opiates?
They cause addiction and lead to tolerance, where there is a danger of reaching the lethal limit
What are the short term effects of opiates?
1. Feeling of euphoria, or well-being
2. Dulling of pain
3. Depress nervous system
4. Slow breathing and heart rate
4. Cough reflex inhibited
5. Nausea and vomiting for first time users
6. Coma and death, in high doses
What are the long term effects of opiates?
2. Loss of sex drive
3. Disrupts menstrual cycle
4. Poor eating habits
5. Risk of AIDS, hepatitis, etc. through shared needles
6. Social problems, like theft and prostitution
What are withdrawal symptoms for those addicted to strong analgesics?
1. Hot and cold sweats
What is one treatment to wean opiate addicts off their addiction?
Give them methadone as a replacement for heroin, as it has the same amine group and functions as an analgesic but does not produce the euphoria craved by addicts
What is a depressant?
A drug which depresses the central nervous system by slowing nerve impulses in neurons
What is the most commonly taken depressant?
Why are depressants sometimes confusingly called anti-depressants?
Because they relieve the symptoms of mental depression
What are the medical uses of alcohol?
It is used as an antiseptic before injections
What is the term for psychological and physical dependence on alcohol?
What are the short term effects of small doses of alcohol?
1. A feeling of relaxation and confidence
2. Increased sociability
3. Flushing and a feeling of warmth
What occurs as one takes more alcohol?
1. Judgment and concentration become progressively impaired
2. Speech becomes slurred
3. Loss of balance occurs
What may occur with large doses of alcohol?
1. Loss of consciousness
2. Death by inhalation of vomit
3. Death by stoppage of breathing
What are the long term effects of alcohol?
1. Severe liver disease, including cirrhosis and liver cancer
2. Various forms of heart disease
What occurs with the sudden discontinuation of use of alcohol?
With what other drugs does alcohol have synergistic effects?
Benzodiazepines, narcotics, barbiturates, and solvents
What happens when alcohol is taken with aspirin?
Increased risk of stomach bleeding
For what purposes are other depressants, like benzodiazepines or prozac, commonly prescribed?
1. To reduce anxiety
2. To relieve stress
3. To help insomnia
Why are benzodiazepines and prozac not prescribed for long periods of time?
They do not remove the causes and can induce dependence
What is a unit of alcohol roughly equal to?
1. A half pint of beer or lager
2. A glass of wine
3. A measure of spirits
How does a breathalyzer work?
1. Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) crystals turning green as they are reduced by alcohol to Cr^3+
2. A fuel cell where ethanol is oxidized to produce electricity
What is the method of detecting blood alcohol which is accurate enough to be used in court?
Gas liquid chromatography
What is the principle on which modern, accurate intoximeters are based?
The C-H bonds in ethanol absorb infrared radiation of a particular wavelength
What is a stimulant?
A drug that increases a person's state of mental alertness
What is one example of a stimulant?
What is amphetamine chemically related to?
What do we call a drug which mimics the effect of stimulation on the sympathetic nervous system?
A sympathomimetic drug
What is the part of the nervous system which deals with subconscious nerve responses called?
The sympathetic nervous system
What were amphetamines used to treat in WWII?
Narcolepsy, the uncontrollable desire for sleep
What were amphetamines used as in the 1950s and 1960s?
Anti-depressants and slimming pills
What are the short term effects of amphetamines?
1. Increase in heart rate and breathing
2. Dilation of the pupils
3. Decrease in appetite
4. Fatigue and possible depression, as the effects wear off
What are the long term effects of amphetamines?
1. Weight loss
3. Emotional instability
What is the structure from which adrenaline and amphetamines are both derived?
The phenylethylamine structure
What is a designer drug?
A drug which was discovered through modification to existing drugs
What is one example of a designer drug?
Ecstasy was discovered from modification of what class of drugs?
What disease does ecstasy relieve?
What are the effects of ecstasy?
1. Mental relaxation
2. Increased sensitivity to stimuli
What is one drug which can produce severe and sometimes fatal effects after a single dose?
What is the most widely used stimulant in the world?
What amount of caffeine has been found to cause dependence and physical side effects?
400 mg of caffeine a day
What is the term for a substance which, like caffeine, causes frequent urination?
What are the effects of caffeine?
Why is caffeine included in many painkillers?
It speeds up their effects
Nicotine, morphine, codeine,cocaine, and caffeine are all examples of what?
What is the name for nitrogen-containing compounds of plant origin containing heterocyclic rings?
What is the name of a ring containing other atoms as well as carbon?
A heterocyclic ring
What is the name for a compound similar in structure to caffeine which is found in chocolate?
What are the withdrawal symptoms for stopping smoking?
1. Craving for tobacco
3. Weight gain
What are the long-term effects of nicotine?
1. Increased risk of heart disease
2. Coronary thrombosis
3. Excess production of stomach acid-Eventually peptic ulcers
What are the well-known risks of smoking?
1. Chronic lung disease
2. Adverse effects on pregnancy
3. Cancers of the lung, mouth and throat
What is the name of the acid in the chromosomes of bacteria?
What do you call a bacteria which requires oxygen and is more likely to infect surface areas?
What is the opposite of an aerobic bacteria?
What is an example of a low-oxygen environment?
What is the name of the lines which allow bacteria to move?
What is an example of a disease caused by spherical bacteria?
What is an example of a disease caused by rod-shaped bacteria?
What is an example of a disease caused by spiral-shaped bacteria?
Who developed the first effective antibacterial?
Who first discovered penicillin in a petri dish?
Who were the first people to successfully isolate and purify penicillin?
Florey and Chain
What is the name of the original penicillin?
What was the problem with Penicillin G?
It was broken down by stomach acid and needed to be injected
What are antibiotics effective against only certain types of bacteria called?
Narrow spectrum antibiotics
What is one example of a broad range antibiotic?
What are the two primary actions of antibiotics?
1. Preventing the formation of the cell walls of the bacteria
2. Interfering with the chemical processes essential to the life function of bacteria
What are the names of two antibiotics which interfere with cell wall formation?
Penicillins and cephalosporins
What was the name of the enzyme which deactivated Penicillin G?
What are antibiotic-resistant bacteria called?
What are examples of super bugs?
MRSA and TB
What is an assortment of different antibiotics given at once called?
The use of antibiotics in what has become a problem?
What is the protein coat of a virus called?
What are the pieces of the capsid called?
Name three common viral infections.
The cold, influenza, and chicken pox
What is one difficulty in treating viral infections?
The speed at which the virus multiplies
What are the modes of action of viruses?
1. Altering a cell's genetic material so a virus cannot use it to multiply
2. Preventing new viruses formed from leaving the cell
What is an example of an antiviral which alters cells' genetic material?
What is acyclovir used to treat?
To what is acyclovir similar in structure?
What is a drug which prevents new viruses from leaving the cell?
What virus is amantadine effective against?
What is one enzyme used by all influenza viruses to stick to the host cell wall as it leaves?
How does influenza work?
By blocking the active site on neuraminidase
What is an example of a regularly mutating virus?
What is an example of a disease caused by a retrovirus?
What is a virus which has RNA instead of DNA called?
What are the white blood cells, which are susceptible to AIDS and normally activate other cells in the immune system, called?
What is the process by which a retrovirus makes DNA from its RNA template?
What is the name of a drug which has had some success in treating AIDS?
What is an example of a reverse transcriptase inhibitor?
What is the term for mind altering drugs?
What are the common structures of mind altering drugs?
They are all amines and contain the indole ring structure
What does LSD come form?
LSD takers may believe they are able to do what?
What is it called when LSD effects recur?
What did LSD occasionally lead to when used in psychotherapy?
What compound does LSD inhibit?
What drug is found in the liberty bell mushroom?
What mind altering drugs are only mildly hallucinogenic?
Psilocybin and Marijuana
What drug comes from the peyote cactus?
What does mescaline reduce?
The synergistic effects between mescalin and what drug are considerable?
What is one long term effect of mescaline?
What is another name for marijuana?
What does marijuana come from?
The hemp plant
What is the name of the drug, five times stronger than marijuana, that is found in the resin of the plant?
What is the active ingredient in marijuana?
What occurs rarely as a result of marijuana use?
What is the synergistic effect between marijuana and depressants?
What are some long term effects of marijuana?
3. Lowering of fertility
4. All the risks of smoking
What is the name for a substance which prevents vomiting?
What are three arguments for the legalization of marijuana?
1. Medicinal use
2. Lower crime rate
3. Freedom of the individual
What are three arguments against the legalization of marijuana?
1. Cost to society due to consequent diseases
2. Claims cannabis can lead to harder drugs
3. Increased risk of dangerous driving
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