PSYCHOLOGY: Cognition and Development
Terms in this set (52)
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone. (E.G., Pavlov experimenting on dogs with food and drooling)
when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider/narrower set of objects or actions
the process of utilizing lots of words to make a sentence broader. It is also the process of extending the application of the rule in a certain item which is involved in the language form.
any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject
Serial Position Effect aka the Recency effect
our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list
the study of differences between human beings either as individuals or in groups especially through the use of tests.
the time it takes an individual to respond to a stimulus, such as an attitude question
The notion that we experience discomfort or dissonance when our thoughts, beliefs or behaviors are inconsistent with each other
"Intrinsic motivation occurs when we act without any obvious external rewards
Focus on what you think vs what you do.
Changing what we say to ourselves is a very effective way to cope with our anxieties and modify our behavior
the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless
sensory input is routed to the cortex for analysis, before being sent to the amygdala. Basically is a longer way of receiving emotions and reactions.
sensory input is routed directly to the amygdala via the thalamus. Basically is the shortcut which allows for us to feel emotions instantly.
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Stored as propositions (verbal statements) or as visual images (a visual representation that preserves spatial and form information)?
tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well
tendency to remember words at the end of a list especially well
the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues
the interference effect of previously learned materials on the acquisition and retrieval of newer materials. An example of proactive interference in everyday life would be a difficulty in remembering a friend's new phone number after having previously learned the old number.
when a person has difficulty recalling old information because of newly learned information. For example, you may have difficulty skiing because of recently learning how to snowboard.
involves our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, and are formed from one's experiences, perceptions, feedback, and the culture in which he/she lives.
impairs your brain's judgement areas while reducing your self awareness and self control
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
A method of self-observation in which participants examine their own thoughts and feelings
Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Studied human cognition, how people think and understand. He wondered not just what children knew but how they made sense of the world. Piaget went on to identify four stages of cognitive development.
1st The Sensorimotor Stage
2nd The Preoperational Stage
3rd The Concrete Operational Stage
4th The Formal Operational Stage
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Phrenology (Franz Gall)
the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities.
Kohlberg's stages of moral development
6 identifiable developmental stages of moral reasoning which form the basis of ethical behavior, the pre-conventional (level 1) contains the first stage (obedience and punishment orientation and second stage (self-interest orientation)), the conventional (level 2) contains the third stage (interpersonal accord and conformity) and fourth stage (authority and social-order maintaining orientation) the post-convential (level 3) contains the 5th stage (social contract orientation) and 6th stage (universal ethical principles
Infancy-right and wrong by what feels good or bad
Toddler-right and wrong by what they are told by others
Preschool- internalize family value, consequences of behaviors
7-10- strong sense of should and should not
Preteen/teen-reason abstractly "right" and "wrong" aware of larger society
the extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self
how much you value, respect, and feel confident about yourself
Do I compare myself with others?
Who do I identify myself with>
-reaction of others, comparison with others, social roles, identification
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
is demonstrated by a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as the result of practice or experience.
provides the ability to relate to speed, adaptation, flexibility, and abstract reasoning, and includes the sorts of skills that show the greatest decline with age.
a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way
scientific study of development across a lifespan
Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information.
This is the approach children take to organizing the world into an interrelated network of schemas by which they can categorize and identify people and things for recognition and further understanding.
KOHLBERG (Before Age 9) -the first level of moral development, characterized by avoiding punishment and seeking awards
Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation: Heinz should not steal the drug because he might be caught and sent to jail
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation: It is right for Heinz to steal the drug because it can cure his wife and then she can cook for him.
stage 5: social contract orientation (to promote the society's welfare)
stage 6: ethical principle orientation (to achieve justice and avoid self-condemnation)
stage 7: cosmic orientation (to be true to universal principles and feel oneself part of a cosmic direction that transcends social norms)
Preadolescence, also known as pre-teen or tween, is a stage of human development following early childhood and preceding adolescence. It commonly ends with the beginning of puberty, but may also be defined as ending with the start of the teenage years. For example, dictionary definitions generally designate it as 10-13 years.
Trust vs. Mistrust
From birth to 12 months of age, infants must learn that adults can be trusted. This occurs when adults meet a child's basic needs for survival. Infants are dependent upon their caregivers, so caregivers who are responsive and sensitive to their infant's needs help their baby to develop a sense of trust; their baby will see the world as a safe, predictable place. Unresponsive caregivers who do not meet their baby's needs can engender feelings of anxiety, fear, and mistrust; their baby may see the world as unpredictable. If infants are treated cruelly or their needs are not met appropriately, they will likely grow up with a sense of mistrust for people in the world.
autonomy vs. shame/doubt
As toddlers (ages 1-3 years) begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on their environment to get results. They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. A toddler's main task is to resolve the issue of autonomy vs. shame and doubt by working to establish independence. This is the "me do it" stage. For example, we might observe a budding sense of autonomy in a 2-year-old child who wants to choose her clothes and dress herself. Although her outfits might not be appropriate for the situation, her input in such basic decisions has an effect on her sense of independence. If denied the opportunity to act on her environment, she may begin to doubt her abilities, which could lead to low self-esteem and feelings of shame.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Once children reach the preschool stage (ages 3-6 years), they are capable of initiating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play. According to Erikson, preschool children must resolve the task of initiative vs. guilt.By learning to plan and achieve goals while interacting with others, preschool children can master this task. Initiative, a sense of ambition and responsibility, occurs when parents allow a child to explore within limits and then support the child's choice. These children will develop self-confidence and feel a sense of purpose. Those who are unsuccessful at this stage—with their initiative misfiring or stifled by over-controlling parents—may develop feelings of guilt.
Industry vs. Inferiority
During the elementary school stage (ages 6-12), children face the task of industry vs. inferiority. Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up. They either develop a sense of pride and accomplishment in their schoolwork, sports, social activities, and family life, or they feel inferior and inadequate because they feel that they don't measure up. If children do not learn to get along with others or have negative experiences at home or with peers, an inferiority complex might develop into adolescence and adulthood.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
In adolescence (ages 12-18), children face the task of identity vs. role confusion. According to Erikson, an adolescent's main task is developing a sense of self. Adolescents struggle with questions such as "Who am I?" and "What do I want to do with my life?" Along the way, most adolescents try on many different selves to see which ones fit; they explore various roles and ideas, set goals, and attempt to discover their "adult" selves. Adolescents who are successful at this stage have a strong sense of identity and are able to remain true to their beliefs and values in the face of problemsand other people's perspectives. When adolescents are apathetic, do not make a conscious search for identity, or are pressured to conform to their parents' ideas for the future, they may develop a weak sense of self and experience role confusion. They will be unsure of their identity and confused about the future. Teenagers who struggle to adopt a positive role will likely struggle to "find" themselves as adults.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
People in early adulthood (20s through early 40s) are concerned with intimacy vs. isolation. After we have developed a sense of self in adolescence, we are ready to share our life with others. However, if other stages have not been successfully resolved, young adults may have trouble developing and maintaining successful relationships with others. Erikson said that we must have a strong sense of self before we can develop successful intimate relationships. Adults who do not develop a positive self-concept in adolescence may experience feelings of loneliness and emotional isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
When people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mid-60s. The social task of middle adulthood is generativity vs. stagnation. Generativity involves finding your life's work and contributing to the development of others through activities such as volunteering, mentoring, and raising children. During this stage, middle-aged adults begin contributing to the next generation, often through childbirth and caring for others; they also engage in meaningful and productive work which contributes positively to society. Those who do not master this task may experience stagnation and feel as though they are not leaving a mark on the world in a meaningful way; they may have little connection with others and little interest in productivity and self-improvement.
The qualities that are psychologically central to a person will determine which of the inputs from others affect his or her self-esteem development; the extent to which one values a certain quality influences one's level of self-esteem.
Integrity vs. Despair
From the mid-60s to the end of life, we are in the period of development known as late adulthood. Erikson's task at this stage is called integrity vs. despair. He said that people in late adulthood reflect on their lives and feel either a sense of satisfaction or a sense of failure. People who feel proud of their accomplishments feel a sense of integrity, and they can look back on their lives with few regrets. However, people who are not successful at this stage may feel as if their life has been wasted. They focus on what "would have," "should have," and "could have" been. They face the end of their lives with feelings of bitterness, depression, and despair.From the mid-60s to the end of life, we are in the period of development known as late adulthood. Erikson's task at this stage is called integrity vs. despair.
cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it".
Distinctiveness, prominence, obviousness. The term is widely used in the study of perception and cognition to refer to any aspect of a stimulus that, for any of many reasons, stands out from the rest.
the ability to recognize one's own mental illness
Stages of Love
Love is composed of Intimacy, Passion and Commitment
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psychology | Sdorow, Rickabaugh, Betz
Theorists for Human Growth and Development
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Principles of Management: Organizing
Principles of Management: Controlling
Principles of Management: Leading
Principles of Management: Finances