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Microbiology Final Exam
Terms in this set (87)
What happens if you wash regularly with antibacterial agents and remove your normal microbiota?
more septic to diseases.
What types of diseases are communicable? Which are not?
Diseases that arr spread person to person. Malaria, AIDS, Hepatitis are. Tetanus is not.
Are houseflies important vectors for biological transmission?
No they are mechanical.
What is the science of when diseases occur and how they are transmitted?
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of what type of transmission?
What type of infection occurs when there is a bacterial infection after a surgery?
Why doesn't the yeast Candida albicans usually cause disease?
Know what microbial antagonism is and examples.
production of antibiotics.
Be able to recognize what a zoonosis is
animals that you are around give you diseases to make you sick.
What are the protective factors of the skin and its secretions.
What is acne and how can it be treated?
Can't be changed by eating different foods.
Know that chicken pox and shingles is caused by the same virus so each disease can cause the other.
yes they can.
Recognize that animal reservoirs can consistently supply microbes to humans. Those
diseases without animal reservoirs (only found in humans) are possible to eradicate like
no animal reservoirs
A skin and nerve disease that causes open sores on the body and can lead to serious complications and death. isolation will not help.
Why are encephalitis and meningitis so difficult to treat?
many antibiotics cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
What is rabies and where do most infections come from in the US?
What is the most effective control of mosquito-borne disease?
get rid of mosquitoes.
How do most pathogens get into the nervous system?
Why is encephalitis more common in the summer?
mosquitoes are out
Prions cause what diseases?
Mad cow---doesn't cause rabies.
What test do we use for determining whether a person bitten by a mosquito with chills, headache, and fever has a particular disease?
What types of diseases should be treated with antibiotics? What type of symptoms should be just monitored with supportive care?
Anything that id a streptococcus bacteria--- not used for polio and rabies.
Can mosquitoes directly cause meningitis?
no just a carrier
How is the lower respiratory tract protected from microbes?
it has no competition and normal florea
What are the symptoms of influenza?
diarrhea is not a symptom
A positive tuberculin skin test can result from several things? Can it result from being near an infected person?
Which bacterial infection requires both antibiotics and antitoxins?
Who were the primary victims of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919?
young adults 20-30
C. dif is usually associated with what type of antibiotic use?
extended use of antibiotics.
What is salmonellosis? Infection mainly depends on what?
How many microorganisms you ingest.
What are the characteristics of staphylococcal food poisoning? How can it be prevented?
refrigerate---can't prevent by cooking foods to 50 degrees.
What microbe is the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea.
What microbe causes inflammation of the liver?
Hepatitis A virus
Bacterial epidemics involving the digestive system are typically caused by what?
How are most bacterial infections of the lower digestive tract treated?
Dental plaque is an example of what type of microbial structure?
What STD is treated with penicillin?
Do urine samples normally contain microbes?
no they are sterile
Nosocomial infections of the urinary tract are caused by what microbe?
What protects infants born to asymptomatic mothers with recurrent genital herpes from acquiring the herpes virus at birth?
A man has fever, malaise, and a rash? What type of test would be the most useful for a rapid diagnosis?
Are infectious diseases eradicated from our world?
Who can become opportunistic pathogens?
What are reservoirs of infection?
always living? no
Is the normal microbiota in the reproductive systems of women and men the same?
When is a host considered diseased?
How are infections of Legionella pneumorphila usually transmitted?
Can normal healthy organisms carry pathogenic organisms, especially in their upper
What is the study of organisms too small to see called?
Why does bacteria stain differently with gram stain?
different cell walls
What are microorganisms without a nucleus?
What are the characteristics of viruses? Can they be seen with a light microscope?
Very SMALL. can't be seen with microscope.
Are most microorganisms pathogenic?
no. only a few
Why is nitrogen a growth-limiting nutrient?
few microbes can extract it from the atmosphere, but all organisms require it for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis
Early life on Earth was what?
Be familiar with endospores. What do they do for the bacteria?
allow bacteria to survive through changes
Why are patients with catheters are susceptible to infections?
How do microbes die - What is the pattern of microbial death?
How do you tell if a disinfectant is effective against a microbe?
zone of inhibition
Why is Streptococcus classified in the Lactobacillales?
Are most fungi pathogenic for humans?
Are all helminths parasitic?
Do nearly all protozoans cause disease?
Who are the intermediate and definitive hosts for the malaria parasite?
What causes ringworm?
How are viruses different than bacteria?
viruses have no cell, and bacteria does.
What are lichens? What are they used for (think Rudolph)?
fungus.. reindeer eat it
What are the characteristics of algae?
phototropic, produce oxygen.. not plants
How do you define a gene?
small fragment of DNA that codes foe a protein.
DNA is constructed of what type of strands running how?
2 strands anti- parallel
f you mix together TAQ polymerase with the DNA template from a human, what type of molecule do you end up with?
What contributes to the virulence of a pathogen?
numbers of microorganisms that gain access to a host, evasion of host defenses, and toxin production
Be familiar with ID50. How does this influence how easily a microbe can cause an
Why does the use of antibiotics in animal feed lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria?
antibiotics kill some bacteria but the ones that it does not kill reproduce and make tons of them.
What causes drug resistance by microbes?
over use of antibiotics
How do biofilms help pathogens?
form an environment resistant to antibiotics
Where do endotoxins come from?
gram neg cell wall
If you know the sequence of nucleotides within a gene, what would that tell you?
primary structure of protein
What is innate immunity?
non-specific defense--born with it
What is defense of the body against a particular pathogen?
Do the resident microbiota play a role in defense against pathogen invasion?
What is microbial antagonism?
the ability of the normal flora to outcompete and outgrow pathogens
Vaccination provides what type of immunity?
What are cytokines?
signaling molecules of the immune system
What does HIV attack?
Helper T cells
When do autoimmune diseases occur?
can't distinguish cell from itself
Is cancer similar to an infectious disease?
yes. Immune disease.
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Principles of Life
David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis, H. Craig Heller
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