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92 terms

mycology exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Glycogen
True Fungi primary storage carb.
Telemorph
sexual stage or perfect stage
Anamorph
asexual or imperfect stage
Stromenopiles, slime molds (cellular and net)
What are NOT fungi
Chytridomycota, glomeromycota, zygomycota, ascomycota, basidiomycota
Kingdom Fungi Phyla
Robigo
rust god in cereals around 370 BC
british people drinking tea
until 1870 cofee made in sri lanka, rust killed resulting in
potato Famine
1840s 2 million dead, Phytophtora infestans
Aspergillus niger
used to make citric acid for foods
Mycelium
mass of hyphae-body of a fungus
Thallus
the somatic body
Assimilative form
the vegetive/somatic body
Mutualist
lichens, mycorrhizae, leaf cutter ants
parasites
facultive, obligate
Role of fungal cell wall
structure, turgor, barrier with diffusion, chemoreception
Chitin
composes fungal cell wall
Melanins
dark brown to black pigment, protects from uv light and dessecation
Ascomycete/Basidiomycete cell wall made of
Chitin
Zygomycete cell wall made of
Chitosan
Oomycetes cell wall made of
cellulose
microvesicle
On hypal tip (chitosomes, perocisomes)
vesicle cloud
on hyphal tip
spitzenkorper
cluster of vesicles at the hyphal tip that delivers material necessary for growth
Chitosomes
chitin synthesis organelle-deliver zymogen chitin synthase to apical tip.
Chitinases and glucanases role at hyphal tip
soften wall to aid direction of tip growth
What occurs at same time in hyphal tip
growth AND degradation
Septa
cross walls formed in hyphae
primary septa
are formed by hyphal extension, usually with a septal pore.
Secondary or adventitious septa
are imperforate, formed to wall off agein parts of mycelium
Asco/Basidiomycota have __hyphae
septate
8 Steps of protein secretion
ribosomes load with mRNA-dock onto ER-polypeptide enters ER luman-nacent peptide modified-transported to golgi-er vesicles lipids recycled-golgi modifies/trims/folds- vesicle carries to secretion site
Fungi uptake mediated by
pores/channels, porters(against gradient), driven by H pumps to create PH gradient
Appressoria
cell wall with septa behind it that builds of pressure to force itself into host tissue
Who forms appressoria?
Asco/Deutero/oomycetes
Haustorium
often attached to appressorium, fungal hyphae breaches cell wall but not cell membrane
Rhozoids
root-like branches stemming from thallus, support, release digestive enzymes
Rhizomorphs
Root-shape, usually basidiomycetes
Sclerotia
hyphal resting structure, high in glucans, survive many years in harsh enviroment. Asco/Basido
Hyphal Tip Growth process first 5 steps
1.hyphae grows, steep gradient formed towards tip
2.flow mediated by micro-filiments
3.actin at tip of spitzencorper prevents bursting
4.tip fills with secretion bodies
5. vesicles filled with chitosomes and chitinases to grow and soften
Hyphal Tip Growth process second 5 steps
6. Chitin deposited non-cross linked as made
7.cell wall polmerizes
8.glycerol makes turgor
9.additional proteins added
10.new branches formed by targeted weakining of cell wall and making new spizenkorper
Hydrophobins
water resistance, mainly to control water pressure
Woronin
plugginh and regulating tip wall, more complex b/c two nuclei in one cell and ability to regulate (asco)
Polar meristem
all growth at tip, no intercalary growth.
Phylogeny
Like a family tree, historical sewuence of changes that occur in a given species during the course of it's evolution
Zoospore Nuclear Cap
rich in protein and rhibosome
Zoospore Flagellum
makes motile
planogamete
moving gamete
isogamete
gamites that are similar in shape and size
operculum
opens like a lid to shoot spores
Haplophase
1n, one copy of chromosome
Diplophase
n+n, two nulclei
Holocarpic
As in Zoospore, entire spore encysts and fills with haploid zoospores
Somatogamy
fusion of two cells
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Chytridiomycosis of amphybians, disrupts frog ion balance
Cellular vs True Slime Mold
cellular collection of cells, true all one organsism
Plasmodium
main diff between cell and true slime molds. True HAVE IT
Dictyostelium
used as model because easy to see whole life cycle
Aggregation
collection of cells controlled by cyclic AMP
Slime mold "Slug"
formation after slime mold aggregation before fuiting
Myxomycete
slime molds, with extended diploid phase
Glomates
Phylum-Zygomycota/ Order-glomarmycota. AM fungi (arbuscular mycorrihiza)
Arbuscule
threadlike mycellial fingers of Glomates
Deuteromycetes
contain all fungi with no sexual stage
Schizolytic
the halves of a double septum split apart by the breakdown of a kind of middle lamella. one wall formed
Rhexolytic
the outer wall of a cell beneath or between conidia breaks down. 2 walls formed
Penicillium pieces
Conidia (spores) attached to Phialide (stalk) attached to specialized hypha
Olpidium brassicae
Chitridmycota, holocarpc, endoparasitic, inoperculate, isogamy, infects grass and cabbage roots.
Chytriomyces hyalinus
Chitridmycota, eucarpic, epibiotic, operculate, rhizomycelium
Zygomycota
non-motile spores, bread molds, rhizopusm piloblus
Heterothallic
cannot mate with self
Homothallic
can self reproduce
Zygosporangium formation
opp mating types, form gametangia, septa between gametangia dissolves (plasogamy) zygosprngm mature with suspensors
Rhizopus stolonifer
Zygomycota/ mucorales. assexual with sporangiospore, rhizoids and stolons on thallus
Pilobolus
the hat thrower, sporangiophore curve to follow light to get in field to get eaten. 27m/sec
Basidiobolus ranarum
only genus in basidiobolaceae of zygomycota
VAM fungi
Vascular Arbuscular mycorrhiza, fix carbon from plants, plant gets nutes and water uptake
the Hughes Barron system
classification based on mode of Conidiation
Blastic
blowing out, conidium in recognizable prior to septa forming
Thallic
pre-existing cell/ depta fully converted to spore
Blastic-phialidic
phialides dont change length just push out more spores
Blstic retrogressive
as chain of conidia elongate, hphae grow shorter
Thallic arthric
hyphae stops growing than divides
thallic solitart
conidia liberated rhexolytically
Oomycota
water molds, downy, white rust
Hyphochytriomycota
zoospores with anterior tinsel flagellum
Labytinthulomycota
net slime molds
Zoospore
Asexual reproduction, formed from cytoplasmic cleavage.
Primary (Auxiliary) Zoospores
grape shaped both flagella inserted apically
Secondary (principal)
kidney shaped, both flagella inserted laterally.
Kinetosome
microtubule where flagellum formed
Whiplash flagella
smooth
Tinsel or Straminipilous flagella
lots of tripartite tubular hairs (TTHs)