Upgrade to remove ads
AP Art History - Renaissance in Italy 1400s
Terms in this set (40)
Renaissance Florence (no picture)
Most great Quattrocento (the '400s in Italian) artists and scholars had Medici patronage. Early in the 15th century the banker Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (ca. 1360 - 1429) established the family fortune. His son, Cosimo (1389 - 1464) a great patron of art and learning, donated the equivalent of $20,000,000 to establish the 1st public library since antiquity. Cosimo's grandson, Lorenzo (1449 - 1492), called "the Magnificent," was a member of the Platonic Academy of Philosophy and gathered artists and gifted men in all fields around him.
The congruence of artistic genius, the spread of humanism, and economic prosperity nourished the Renaissance.
By 1464 there was a printing press near Rome and by 1469 Venice established one. Dante's vernacular epic, Divine Comedy, was one of the first books to be published and had widespread popularity.
Humanists "Renaissance men," also avidly acquired information on botany, geology, optics, medicine, and engineering.
Medieval people believed divine will determined events, while Renaissance people were more secular and thought they achieving and excelling through hard work was a moral imperative.
Important Artistic Elements to Observe (no picture)
Attention to the human form and depicting anatomy correctly, including the return of classical nudity and contrapposto - influence of classical Roman statues
Subjects selected from classical history or mythology
The revival of portraiture and other self-aggrandizing forms of patronage
Discovery and codification of linear perspective to create the illusion of three-dimensional space, usage of aerial perspective - these values were important to classical painting
Use of chiaroscuro to model forms, use of single light source - greater realism
Paintings that have balanced, symmetrical compositions, often using pyramidal composition
Classical forms are incorporated more into architecture (triumphal arches, domes, coffers, harmonious geometric relationships)
Citizens' extensive participation in civic and religious art commissions
FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1401-1402. Gilded bronze, 1' 9" x 1' 5"
Earliest important artistic commission sponsored by Florence's wool merchant guild for east of portal of the Baptistery of San Giovanni that faced the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore.
Key Renaissance elements: guild patronage as civic imperative and self-promotion, esteem to artists, new pictorial illusionism.
7 semifinalists, but only 2 survived. Entrants submitted relief panels depicting sacrifice of Isaac in similar French Gothic quatrefoil frame as Pisano's doors (1330 - 1335).
Abraham's willingness to sacrifice Isaac prefigures (prophetic forerunner) Jesus' crucifixion. Both refer to covenants between God and humans similar to a baptism.
LORENZO GHIBERTI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1401-1402. Gilded bronze relief, 1' 9" x 1' 5"
Brunelleschi's image - violent movement and high emotion; planar orientation of the surface
Ghiberti's - grace and smoothness; spatial illusion and foreshortening. Abraham in a Gothic pose, Isaac regarded as 1st classical nude since antiquity. Interest in how muscular system and skeletal structure moves body. Altar with acanthus scrolls. Classical references reflect influence of humanism.
Ghiberti's panel is cast in 2 pieces (reducing amount of bronze needed) - lighter and more impervious to elements, cost savings.
LORENZO GHIBERTI, east doors (Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1425-1452. Gilded bronze, 17' high. Modern copy, ca. 1980. Original panels in Museo dell' Opera del Duomo, Florence.
New east doors cathedral officials commissioned Ghiberti to make in 1425. His 1st doors were moved to the north entrance.
Michelangelo declared these doors were "so beautiful that they would do well for the gates of Paradise."
Now square, the number of panels was reduced from 28 to 10 and depicts episodes from Old Testament.
Perspective diagram of LORENZO GHIBERTI, Isaac and His Sons (detail Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1425-1452, Gilded bronze, 2' 7" x 2' 7.
Perspective: picture plane as a transparent window through which the observer looks to see the constructed pictorial world.
Linear perspective made possible scale drawings, maps, charts, graphs, and diagrams - exact means of representation that laid foundation for modern science.
Invented (or rediscovered) by Brunelleschi. Ghiberti and Donatello were 1st artists to use his system for representing space.
Sculptor's atmospheric perspective with forms less distinct the deeper in space.
LORENZO GHIBERTI, Isaac and His Sons (detail Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1425-1452Gilded bronze, 2' 7" x 2' 7"
Medieval narrative method - several episodes within one frame
Women on left foreground - birth of Esau and Jacob in the left background
Center foreground - Isaac sends Esau and his dogs to hunt game.
Right foreground - Isaac blesses the kneeling Jacob as Rebecca looks on.
Ghiberti collected classical sculpture, bronzes and coins.
Rebecca was based on popular Greco-Roman statuary.
DONATELLO, David, late 1440-1460. Bronze, 5' 2" high.
First free-standing nude statue since antiquity. Notice the contrapposto.
Nudity used to portray a Biblical hero - David, slayer of Goliath (who was the symbol for the Florentine Republic) rather than as an allegory for sinfulness (Medieval mentality).
In Middle Ages, clergy regarded nude statues as indecent and idolatrous - nudity appeared rarely in art, only in biblical or moralizing contexts, i.e. Adam and Eve or depictions of sinners in hell.
Created for the Medici palace courtyard in Florence. Selecting David as subject suggests the Medici saw themselves as responsible for Florence's prosperity and freedom.
DONATELLOPenitent Mary Magdalene, ca. 1455. Painted and gilded wood, 6' 2"high.
Donatello's depiction of the aged Mary Magdalene lacks the proportions and sensuous beauty of David (which was reminiscent of Praxiteles' work).
Demonstrates extraordinary versatility of Donatello.
ANDREA DEL VERROCCHIO, David, ca. 1465-1470. Bronze, 4' 1"high.
Verrocchio was a painter as well as a sculptor and directed a bottega (studio-shop) in Florence; Leonardo Da Vinci was his student.
Narrative realism of Verrocchio's David contrasts with quiet classicism of Donatello's.
A brash young man - dressed in a leather doublet, posing like a hunter with his kill.
The Medici eventually sold Verrocchio's David to the Florentine government for placement in the Palazzo della Signoria.
After expulsion of Medici from Florence, civic officials moved the statue to city hall.
DONATELLO, Gattamelata Piazza del Santo, Padua, Italy, ca. 1445-1450. Bronze, 12' 2"high.
Donatello travelled to Venice to create equestrian portrait of recently deceased Venetian condottiere ("contractor" - mercenary captain) Erasmo da Narni, nickname "honeyed cat" from his mother's name, Melania Gattelli.
Family paid for portrait, Venetian senate authorized placement.
Rivaled Roman portrait of Marcus Aurelius, which the artist must have seen in Rome.
Gattamelata dominates by force of character rather than size. Resolution and unshakable will, portrait of the Renaissance individualist: intelligent, courageous, ambitious, and frequently of humble origin rising to a commanding position in the world.
Left forefoot of horse on orb - domination over the earth; more remarkable because Erasmo da Narni was not a head of state.
International Gothic Style
Not all painters incorporated classical features in their paintings.
Still a loyal following of International Gothic Style painting embodied in work of Gentile da Fabriano.
In 1423 he painted Adoration of the Magi altarpiece for the family chapel of the Strozi family (the wealthies) in Florence. Elaborate gilded Gothic frame reveals patron's lavish tastes.
First nighttime nativity scene with a radiant Christ Child.
Even Gentile da Fabriano's work contains elements of the "new naturalism" (interest in modeling in light and shadow and developing recessional space). Animals depicted from a variety of angles, some figures are foreshortened.
GENTILE DA FABRIANO, Adoration of the Magi, altarpiece from Strozzi Chapel, Santa Trinità, Florence, Italy, 1423Tempera on woodapprox. 9' 11" x 9' 3"
Imitation and Emulation & Importance of Masaccio to Early Renaissance (no picture)
Developing Renaissance artists would arrive at their own style by imitating works of masters then emulating them - attempting to improve on their work. Comparison and competition were integral to process. Cennino Cennini described training in The Artist's Handbook (1400).
Massaccio broke sharply from the practice of working in his teacher's International Style in the short span of 6 years. No other painter in history contributed so much to the development of a new style in a short time (he died at 27). Considered artistic descendant of Giotto.
Massaccio's Tribute Money brings together innovations in 15th century painting - trailblazer whose work influenced other artists
Linear and aerial (atmospheric) perspective
Classical body types (blend of idealism with realism) with suggestions of bones, muscles, and joints.
Giotto used light to only model the masses, Masaccio used chiaroscuro to create a more realistic picture, single light source from the right, modeling the human anatomy to give figures weight
Balanced, composition with center focal point
MASACCIO, Tribute Money, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, ca. 1427. Fresco, 8' 4" x 19' 7"
Episode from Matthew (17:24-27) in 3 parts: in center Jesus, confronted by tax collector, tells Peter to retrieve coin from fish; at left, Peter extracts coin from fish; on right he pays tax collector.
MASACCIO, Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, ca. 1424-1427. Fresco, 7' x 2' 11"
Notice that Adam's and Eve's body types and poses are derivative of ancient Roman statuary.
Compare Masaccio's Adam to Jan van Eyck's Adam from the Ghent Altarpiece (Flemish, 1430 - 1432).
Eve has the "modest Venus" pose.
Sharply slanted light creates deep relief, and unifies composition.
Adam's feet clearly in contact with ground mark human presence on earth.
Stumble blindly - angel's well and their own despair driving them.
MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1424-1427. Fresco, 21' 11" x 10' 5"
Premier early 15th century example of linear perspective. Masaccio may have collaborated with Brunelleschi. Vanishing point at foot of cross - at viewers' eye level - innovation in illusionistic painting.
God the Father is behind Christ, with dove of Holy Spirit between their heads. Virgin Mary and Saint John on either side.
Memento mori at the base: "I was once what you are, and what I am you will become."
Symmetry created by the pyramidal composition. Count the triangles!
The donors kneeling in front of the pilasters (gives the appearance of a column, but is only ornamental) reflect Renaissance interest in the individual
Classical architecture (triumphal arch)
What does it mean?
The Renaissance and Purely Religious Commissions (no picture)
Not all Quattrocento Italian artists had humanist concerns.
Fra Angelico was commissioned by the abbot of the Dominican monastery of San Marco in Florence to produce a series of frescos.
To encourage immersion in their devotional lives of prayer and work, the Dominicans compound was mostly spare and austere. Fra Angelico's Annunciation was hung at the top of the stairs leading to the friars' cells and was simple and serene, fitting with their environment.
2 figures appear in a loggia (hall, gallery, or porch open to the air on one or more sides) resembling the portico (a structure consisting of a roof supported by columns at regular intervals, typically attached as a porch to a building) of San Marco's cloister (a covered walk in a convent, monastery, college, or cathedral, typically with a wall on one side and a colonnade open to a quadrangle on the other).
Inscribed at base: "As you venerate, while passing before it, this figure of the intact Virgin, beware lest you omit to say a Hail Mary."
FRA ANGELICO, Annunciation, San Marco, Florence, Italy, ca. 1438-1447. Fresco, 7' 1" x 10' 6"
ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO, Last Supper, the refectory, convent of Sant' Apollonia, Florence, Italy, 1447. Fresco, 15' 5" x 32'
Castagno, younger than Fra Angelica, produced a series of frescos for a convent of Benedictine nuns. Last Supper was hung in their refectory (dining hall).
Inconsistencies of perspective - view of outside roof and inside ceiling, 2 side walls are not parallel.
Disciples are self-absorbed, Judas - sitting alone, has malevolent features
DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO, Birth of the Virgin, Cappella Maggiore, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, 1485-1490. Fresco, 24' 4" x 14' 9"
Contracted by one of the wealthiest Florentines, Giovanni Tornabuoni, to paint frescos depicting scenes from the lives of the Virgin and Saint John the Baptist for the choir of Santa Maria Novella, same Dominican church as Masaccio's Holy Trinity.
Saint Anne, Mary's mom is reclining in a palatial Renaissance room while midwives prepare the infant's bath.
From the left comes a procession of women led by a young Tornabuoni family member, probably Ludovica, Giovanni's only daughter. A different female member of the house is painted in each fresco.
Secularization of sacred themes - even stealing the show from the Biblical figures, subordinates fresco's devotional nature.
Achievements of 1400's Florentine painting: clear spatial representation, statuesque figures, and rational order. Only arrangement of the figures is reminiscent of earlier art - in rigid layers parallel to the picture plane.
PAOLO UCCELLO, Battle of San Romano, ca. 1455 (?). Tempera on wood, approx. 6' x 10' 5"
Trained in International Style, one of three paintings by Uccello in Lorenzo de' Medici's bedchamber.
Date is unsure - painting may have been purchased from previous owner.
Depicts Florentine victory, led by Cosimo de' Medici's friend and supporter Niccolo da Tolentino, against the Sienese in 14332.
Orange fruits are mela medica (medicinal apples) - Medici means doctors, so it was a fitting symbol for the family.
Foreshortened broken spears, lances, and a fallen soldier - perspective in the foreground.
Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, ca. 1482. Tempera on wood, 6' 8" X 10' 4"
Painted for Lorenzo di Pierfranceso de' Medici, one of Lorenzo the Magnificent's cousins.
Halo of sky around Venus' (goddess of love) head in the center.
3 Graces - Venus' handmaidens: Aglaia (Beauty), Euphrosyne (Mirth) & Thalia (Abundance), the target of Cupid (Venus' son) arrow.
Zephyrus, the west wind, is about to carry off and marry the nymph Chloris, whom he transforms into Flora, the goddess of spring - wearing a floral gown.
Mercury on the left turns away from others and reaches up with caduceus, his staff perhaps to dispel storms.
Subject matter suggests that painting was for Lorenzo's wedding.
Neo-Platonists' view that earthly love is compatatible with Christian theology. Venus provokes desire through Cupid, which can lead to lust/ violence or through reason and faith to the love of God. Read from left to right, urged newlyweds to seek God through love.
SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1484-1486. Tempera on canvas, approx. 5' 9" x 9' 2"
Medici patron; from humanist, Angelo Polizano's (1454 - 1494) poem that retold the Greek myth.
Zephyrus, carrying Chloris, blows Venus, born of sea foam, carried on a cockle shell to her sacred island, Cyprus. Nymph, Pomona, meets her with a brocaded mantle (cloak-like garment - outerwear).
Venus modeled after a Hellenistic variant of Praxiteles' Aphodite of Knidos.
Nude depiction of Venus went unchallenged because of Neo-Platonic reading: those who embrace the contemplative life of reason (including the Medici circle) will immediately contemplate spiritual and divine beauty when ever they behold physical beauty.
Botticelli's graceful linear style was influenced by the International Style, paralleled Florentine allegorical pageants - chivalric (medieval style) tournaments structured around allusions to classical mythology. Same trend in poetry of 1470s - 1480s.
Savonarola and Botticelli: http://albertis-window.blogspot.com/2009/02/savonarola-and-botticelli.html
ANTONIO DEL POLLAIUOLO, Battle of the Ten Nudes, ca. 1465 Engraving. 1' 3" x 1' 11"Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
ANTONIO DEL POLLAIUOLO, Hercules and Antaeus, ca. 1470-1475. Bronze, 1' 6" high with base
Battle of the Ten Nudes - one of earliest known engravings, ecorche - muscles look so defined that it looks as if they lack skin
German graphic artists - crosshatching to describe surfaces of forms, Italians - hatching for anatomical studies.
Engraving and sculpture reveal Pollaiuolo's interest in human figures in action.
Somewhat stiff and froze because Pollaiuolo depicted all the muscle groups at maximum tension. Several decades later, Leonardo da Vinci, a greater anatomist observed that only some of the body's muscle groups participate in any one action, while the others remain relaxed.
FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, façade and plan of the Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, Italy, begun ca. 1440.
1st Renaissance central plan like the Pantheon or Florentine Baptistery.
Finished after Brunelleschi's death, exterior not original design, loggia (roofed open gallery overlooking an open court) was an afterthought.
Italian Renaissance Family Chapel Endowments
Wealthy families endowed chapels in or adjacent to major churches - usually on either side of the choir near the altar at the church's east end.
Medici chapel abuts San Lorenzo in Florence, Pazzi chapel is adjacent to Santa Croce.
Ensure well being of souls of family members and ancestors. Burial sites, liturgical celebrations, and commemorative services.
Purgatory - a way station between Heaven and Hell where souls could atone for sins before judgment day - won favor between the late 1100s and early 1200s. Pope Innocent II recognized in 1215.
Charitable work, good deeds, and devotional practices proliferated,
Patrons commissioned painted altarpieces, frescoes, and sculpture.
Not only expression of piety and devotion, but opportunities for donors to enhance their stature in the community.
FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, interior of the Pazzi Chapel (looking northeast), Santa Croce, Florence, Italy, designed ca.1423, with glazed terracotta roundels by Luca della Robbia.
Served as chapter house (meeting hall) for Franciscan monks.
Gray pietra serena stone with white stuccoed walls
Tondi in the dome's pendentives are glazed terracotta - a recent invention and flourishing family business
MICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, facade of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, Italy, begun 1445.
After the exile imposed on Medicis by other elite families who resented their consolidation of power, they employed Michelozzo di Bartolommeo to design their new palazzo. (Brunelleschi influenced him).
They actually rejected Brunelleschi's design - too ostentatious, politically wise for them to maintain a lower profile.
Rustication (rough unfinished masonry) on ground floor accentuates strength (Roman precedent).
Unbroken stringcourses (horizontal bands).
Upper stories decrease in height - lighter.
Cornice at top defines proportions.
MICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, interior court of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, Italy, begun 1445.
Internal court surrounded by a colonnaded arcade was the 1st of its kind and influenced a long line of descendants in Renaissance domestic architecture.
Italian Princely Courts & Artistic Patronage (no picture)
No single rule in Italy; independent city-states bred power hungry elites - "princes" who would actually were dukes, marquis, counts, cardinals, popes, or condottiere.
Princely court - power relationship between prince and inhabitants of their territories: employment, favors, protection, prestige, and leadership.
Princely courts employed household staffs and an elaborate bureaucracy to oversee political, economic, and military operations.
Princes commissioned numerous artworks and buildings.
They selected "court artists" for their individual style as well as their ability to work collaboratively.
Court artists' benefits: guaranteed salary (not always forthcoming) , living quarters in palace, liberation for guild, sometimes status in prince's inner circle or even knighthood.
Until 16th century artists had limited status - same class a small shopkeepers and petty merchants. At court dinners, they usually sat with the salaried household - tailors, cobblers, barbers, and upholsterers.
Artists also designed tapestries, seat covers, costumes, masks, decorations for festivities, and expensive gifts for visiting nobles.
PERUGINO Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint PeterSistine Chapel, VaticanRome, Italy1481-1483Fresco11' 5" x 18' 8"
1481 - 1483 Pope Sixtus IV summoned artists to decorate walls of new Sistine Chapel; including Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, and Pietro Vannucci, known as Perugino - named for Perugia, Umbria - his birthplace.
Papacy had based its claim to infallible and total authority over the Roman Catholic Church on this biblical event. Peter is considered the first bishop and pope by Catholics.
12 apostles and Renaissance contemporaries in foreground.
Central plan temple in center, triumphal arches modeled after the Arch of Constantine, the 1st Christian emperor and builder of the great basilica.
LUCA SIGNORELLI, Damned Cast into Hell, San Brizio Chapel, Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, 1499-1504. Fresco, 23' wide.
Luca Signorelli was another Umbrian painter chosen by Sixtus IV to paint the Sistine Chapel walls.
His work was the pictorial equal of Savonarola's fiery sermons.
Developed Pollaiuolo's interest in depicting muscular bodies in violent action in a vide variety of poses and foreshortenings.
Pope Alexander VI commissioned Signorelli to paint scenes depicting the end of the world.
Saint Michael and his hosts of Heaven hurl the damned into Hell where they are tortured by demons, some with wings.
1st time horrible consequences of a sinful life had been so graphically depicted since Gislebertus' west tympanum of Saint Lazare at Autun around 1130.
PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA,Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro, ca. 1472-1474. Oil and tempera on wood in modern frame, each panel 1' 6" X 1' 1"
Popes, kings, and soldiers came from across Europe to study with the condottiere count Federico da Montefeltro, of Urbino - SE of Florence, one of the greatest patrons of the 15th century.
Married Battista Sforza when she was 14. She was related to royalty and an educated humanist who was an excellent administrator of Federico's territories during his military campaigns.
She died at age 26, five months after giving birth to a boy (after 8 daughters). Federico mourned for the rest of his life.
Federico commissioned native Tuscan, Piero della Francesca to paint double portrait after her death. Similar to profile portraits on Roman coins collected by humanists.
Profile concealed disfigured side of Federico's face (lost eye and part of bridge of nose in tournament). Coins/marriage portraits opposite side.
Hinged diptych, usede Flemish format and oil paint; Federico employed Flemish painters.
Painted from Battista's death mask.
On back, triumphal chariots with personifications of virtues.
Inscriptions - Battista past tense, Federico present tense
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, west facade of Sant' Andrea, Mantua, Italy, designed 1470, begun 1472.
General of Milanese armies, fierce condottiere Marquis Ludovico Gonzaga ruled the court of Mantua.
Pope Pius II's visit inspired marquis' determination to transform city.
Redesign and replace 11th century church of Sant' Andrea.
Temple front with pediment with triumphal arch.
Height and width of façade are equal because of Alberti's concern for its proportion and relation to the small square in front - even when facade was shorter than the church behind.
Pilasters are the same height as those on nave's interior walls.
Façade pilasters are 3 stories tall - colossal or giant order that became a favorite motif of Michelangelo.
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, interior of Sant' Andrea Mantua, Italy, designed 1470, begun 1472.
Alberti felt that arches should not be used with freestanding columns - the colonnaded conceal the ceremonies from the parishioners in the aisles; he abandoned the medieval columnar arcade Brunelleschi still used.
Broke Christian building tradition that lasted 1000 years - extremely influential.
Thick walls alternated with vaulted chapels.
Massive dome over crossing, built at later date - may be different than Alberti's plan.
ANDREA MANTEGNA, interior of the Camera Picta (Painted Chamber), Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, Italy, 1465-1474. Fresco.
Ludovico Gonzaga believed an impressive palace was an important visual expression of his authority.
Commissioned Andrea Mantegna of Padua to paint frescos. He took almost 9 years to complete the paintings that aggrandize Gonzaga and his family. The particulars of each scene are still a matter of scholarly debate.
1st completely consistent illusionistic decoration of an entire room - similar to 2nd Style Roman painting found in Pompeii, but Mantegna's trompe l'oeil (French, "deceives the eye") went further.
1st perspective of a ceiling seen from below di sotto in su (Italian, "from below upward"). The viewer becomes the viewed as figures look down from the painted oculus (eye).
Integrated real and painted architectural elements on the walls and ceiling; a precursor to 17th century Baroque decoration.
ANDREA MANTEGNA, Camera Picta (Painted Chamber), Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, Italy, 1465-1474. Fresco, 8' 9" in diameter.
Putti, strongly foreshortened set amorous mood of the Room of the Newlyweds.
Peacock is an attribute of Juno, Jupiter's bride, who oversees lawful marriages.
ANDREA MANTEGNA, Foreshortened Christ, ca. 1500. Tempera on canvas, 2' 3" x 2' 8"
Naturalism tempered with artistic license - size of feet are reduced.
Harsh, sharp lines convey theme's corrosive emotion.
In Mantegna's gifted hands, all of Quattrocento science serves the purpose of devotion.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Art History - Italian Mannerism, Northern Europ…
AP Art History Roman Art
Art History- Northern Renaissance
Arts of Asia
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Art History II(Dr. Schwarz)-Exam 2
Art History 202 Terms
Art History 202 Terms
ART HISTORY FINAL
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
AP Art History - Modernism and Postmodernism in Eu…
AP Art History - Modernism in Europe and America
AP Art History - Modernism in Europe and America
AP Art History - Impressionism, Post Impressionism…
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Physiology Kidneys and Lungs
Ch 9 Key Terms
slocum unit 3
F-Ch 41 Normal values for adults