Judicial Branch

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Admiralty
the jurisdiction of courts of law over cases concerning ships or the sea and other navigable waters; maritime law.
Appellate jurisdiction
Appellate jurisdiction is the power of a court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts. Most appellate jurisdiction is legislatively created, and may consist of appeals by leave of the appellate court or by right.
Arraignment
the action of arraigning someone in court.
"he's scheduled for arraignment in New York on Thursday"
Arrest
seize (someone) by legal authority and take into custody.
Arrest warrants
An arrest warrant (also officially called warrant of arrest in the Philippines) is a warrant issued by a judge on behalf of the state, which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual, or the search and seizure of an individual's property.
Attorney
a person appointed to act for another in business or legal matters;lawyer
Bail
the temporary release of an accused person awaiting trial, sometimes on condition that a sum of money be lodged to guarantee their appearance in court.
Circuit Courts
a court that sits at two or more places within one judicial district
Civil cases
a noncriminal lawsuit, usu. involving private property rights
Commited
feeling dedication and loyalty to a cause, activity, or job
Compensation
something, typically money, awarded to someone as a recompense for loss, injury, or suffering.
Complaint
a statement that a situation is unsatisfactory or unacceptable.
Concurrent jurisdiction
Concurrent jurisdiction exists where two or more courts from different systems simultaneously have jurisdiction over a specific case.
Concurring opinion
In law, a concurring opinion is a written opinion by one or more judges of a court which agrees with the decision made by the majority of the court, but states different reasons as the basis for his or her decision.
Constitution of Virginia
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Virginia is the document that defines and limits the powers of the state government and the basic rights of the citizens of the U.S. Commonwealth of Virginia.
Constitutional
of or relating to an established set of principles governing a state.
Court proceedings
Procedural law or adjective law comprises the rules by which a court hears and determines what happens in civil lawsuit, criminal or administrative proceedings. ...
Criminal case
A court proceeding in which a person who is charged with having committed or omitted an act against the community or state is brought to trial and either found not guilty or guilty and sentenced.
Damages
Compensatory damages are paid to compensate the claimant for loss, injury, or harm suffered as a result of (see requirement of causation) another's breach of duty. (e.g., in a negligence claim under tort law).
Defendant
an individual, company, or institution sued or accused in a court of law.
Diplomat
an official representing a country abroad.
Disagreement
lack of consensus or approval.
Dissenting opinion
A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment. When not necessarily referring to a legal decision, this can also be referred to as a minority report.
Exclusive jurisdiction
is typically defined in terms of subject matter. For example, 28 U.S.C. § 1334 gives the United States district courts exclusive jurisdiction over all matters arising in bankruptcy (with few exceptions).
Family cases
The law relating to family disputes and obligations;The area of law, also known as domestic relations law, which generally refers to divorce, dissolution, custody, visitation, support, and paternity. While families also come to the court for adoption, probate matters and child in need of aid cases
Felonies
a crime, typically one involving violence, regarded as more serious than a misdemeanor, and usually punishable by imprisonment for more than one year or by death.
Felony criminal cases
In the United States, where the felony/misdemeanor distinction is still widely applied, the federal government defines a felony as a crime punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one year.
General District Courts
The general district court does not conduct jury trials. All cases in this court are heard by a judge. Jury trials are held only in circuit court, as provided by the Constitution of Virginia. The Code of Virginia defines criminal offenses and sets penalties.
Grand jury
a jury, normally of twenty-three jurors, selected to examine the validity of an accusation before trial.
Guilty verdict
having committed an offense, crime, violation, or wrong, especially against moral or penal law; justly subject to a certain accusation or penalty; culpable: The jury found her guilty of murder.
Judge
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Judicial review
the power to determine the constitutionality of laws and acts of the executive branch of government
Judiciary Act of 1789
organized the federal courts into three different layers, The Supreme Court, U.S. Court of Appeals, and U.S. District Courts
Jurisdiction
court's authority to hear and decide cases
Jury
a body of people (typically twelve in number) sworn to give a verdict in a legal case on the basis of evidence submitted to them in court.
Justices
a judge or magistrate, in particular a judge of the supreme court of a country or state.
Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court
A Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court, in Virginia, handles all cases involving juvenile crime, child abuse or child neglect, disputes involving custody and visitation, and other family-related matters, as well as cases in which a child or family member is an alleged victim.
Juvenile cases
Juvenile cases are those involving minors under the age of 18 years. These are separated into two main categories--Juvenile Delinquency for minors who have broken the law and Juvenile Dependency for minors who have been removed from the home and/or care of their parents or guardians.
Latitude
scope for freedom of action or thought.
Limited original jurisdiction
The U.S. Supreme Court, in turn, has appellate jurisdiction (of a discretionary nature) over the Courts of Appeals, as well as the state supreme courts, by means of writ of certiorari. However, in a special class of cases, the U.S. Supreme Court has the power to exercise original jurisdiction.
Magistrates
a civil officer or lay judge who administers the law, especially one who conducts a court that deals with minor offenses and holds preliminary hearings for more serious ones.
Maritime
connected with the sea, especially in relation to seafaring commercial or military activity.
Misdeameanors
a minor wrongdoing.
"the player can expect a lengthy suspension for his latest misdemeanor"
Opinion of the court
(in appellate courts) an opinion filed by a judge who disagrees with the majority decision of a case.
Original jurisdiction
Original jurisdiction is the authority of a court to provide the first hearing of a specific case.
Parties
A party is a person or group of persons that compose a single entity which can be identified as one for the purposes of the law.
Plaintiff
a person who brings a case against another in a court of law.
Plea
a request made in an urgent and emotional manner.
"he made a dramatic plea for disarmament"
Plea bargain
A plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal or 'copping a plea') is an agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.
Precedent
an earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances.
Probable cause
Case definitions may also be categorised into suspect, probable and confirmed cases.
Prosecution
the institution and conducting of legal proceedings against someone in respect of a criminal charge.
Rehabilitate
restore (someone) to health or normal life by training and therapy after imprisonment, addiction, or illness.
Remand
place (a defendant) on bail or in custody, especially when a trial is adjourned.
"I had a seventeen-year-old son remanded to a drug-addiction program"
Search warrants
a legal document authorizing a police officer or other official to enter and search premises.
State courts
In those states, litigants in general jurisdiction courts usually have the right to appeal their cases directly to the state supreme court. However, the U.S. Supreme Court has repeatedly ruled that appeal is not a federal constitutional right, meaning that states are not obligated to provide it.
Subpoenas
a writ ordering a person to attend a court.
Summons
a writ ordering a person to attend a court.
U.S. Supreme Court
the highest judicial court in a country or state.
Trial
a formal examination of evidence before a judge, and typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings.
Tried as adults
when a juvenile under the age of 18 is tried as an adult due to what they have done. (very rare, usually only if something extreme has been done)
U.S. Court of Appeals
The Federal Circuit hears appeals from specialized trial courts, primarily the United States Court of International Trade and the United States Court of Federal Claims, as well as appeals from the district courts in patent cases and certain other specialized matters.
U.S. District Courts
The United States district courts are the trial courts of the federal court system. Within limits set by Congress and the Constitution, the district courts have jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases, including both civil and criminal matters.
Verdict
a decision on a disputed issue in a civil or criminal case or an inquest.
Virginia Court of Appeals
The Court of Appeals of Virginia, established January 1, 1985, is an eleven-judge body that hears appeals from decisions of Virginia's circuit courts and the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission. The Court sits in panels of at least three judges, and sometimes hears cases en banc. Appeals from the Court of Appeals go to the Supreme Court of Virginia.
Virginia Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of Virginia is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It primarily hears direct appeals in civil cases from the trial-level city and county circuit courts, as well as the criminal law, family law and administrative law cases that are initially appealed to the Court of Appeals of Virginia.
Witness
a person who sees an event, typically a crime or accident, take place.
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