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MCAT P/S HIGH YIELD
Terms in this set (262)
The increasing share of the population over the age of 65 primarily stems from the baby boomers - the post World War II generation in the United States and Canada; Those born between 1946 and 1964
Theory by Karl Marx that states that society is in a permanent state of conflict due to competition for limited resources. Social order is maintained by domination and power. Has thesis and antithesis. Causes synthesis of new state.
e.g. "how exposure to environmental pollution and hazards is shaped by race and class; how words play a role in reproducing and justifying conflict;"
Emile Durkheim - approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society. E.g. grow from simple to complex (e.g. human body)
Life Course Theory
Aging is a social, psychological, and biological process that begins from the time you are born till the time you die. Age-based expectations no longer apply as they used to, as people now live longer.
Selectively forgetting distracting elements of his/her life. Frequently associated with trauma. Other symptoms include feeling of detachment or out-of-body
You show psychological stress in physical ways. For e.g. your leg may become paralyzed after you fall from a horse, even though there was no real injury
Learning associated with reward-seeking motivation
Operant conditioning - it includes a change in behavior due to past outcomes
Learned behavior is not expressed until required
Bandura - particularly imp. during childhood. Learned through watching and imitating others - modeling actions of another
Social Cognitive Theory
Theory of behavior change that emphasizes interactions between people and the environment. Unlike behaviorism, where environment controls entirely, cognition is also important.
State of poverty when a person lacks a stable employment
Organized clusters of knowledge; The speed with which memory schemas are activated is presumed to indicate the participant's implicit bias
Regarding human memory; when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior (memory or thoughts that have a -ve influence on the comprehending of new material)
Components of attitude
ABC model of attitude -
Affective (emotional - I love yoga)
Behavioral (how we act or behave towards subject/object - I will go to yoga each week)
Cognitive (form thoughts/beliefs/ideas, and knowledge - yoga makes me relax)
Draws inferences from a sample of a population where the independent variable is not under control of the researcher because of ethical or logical constraints`
Drug with lowest risk of dependence
This theory is most often associated with class based conceptions of society
i.e. ethnicization - process of ascribing ethnic or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group that did not identify itself as such
The arrangement or classification of people into socioeconomic strata
Increase of this creates euphoria
Prejudice vs. Discrimination
Prejudice are attitudes that prejudge a group and are typically negative, not based on fact (e.g. sexist CEO thinks women can't run companies).
Discrimination is ACTION (if CEO doesn't promote woman)
Random Assignment in studies
If participants are equally likely to be in either group, then that is random assignment; otherwise potential bias
People are more productive alone than in a group. Research also suggests that individuals are less critical and creative in a group
Example of when participants act as their own control
For example, when participants take the same survey before and after a stimulus; they are their own control here
Helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, swallowing, etc.
Occurs when situational pressures hinder groups from critically evaluating relevant information. Power leader makes it more likely. Groups affected wrongly believe that they have followed a sound decision making process
As with groupthink, conf. bias causes an individual to seek and attend to only that information that confirms his or her existing point of view
Self Serving Bias
+ve events to their own character, but -ve events to external factors
"knew it all along"
also called survey bias; tendency to answer questions on a survey untruthfully or misleadingly. For e.g. they may feel pressure to give answers that are socially acceptable
Alzheimer's Biological Systems
Build up of AB (beta amyloid) and NFT (neurofibrillary Tangle) proteins in certain brain areas like amygdala, hippocampus, etc.
Double Blind Research
A double-blind study is one in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a short-term, goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that takes a hands-on, practical approach to problem-solving. Its goal is to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are behind people's difficulties, and so change the way they feel
Structural Functionalism is a sociological theory that attempts to explain why society functions the way it does by focusing on the relationships between the various social institutions that make up society (e.g., government, law, education, religion, etc. The sociological paradigm of functionalism makes a distinction between manifest (intended) and latent (unintended) functions of social activities. From the functionailist perspective, almost all social actions have both manifest and latent functions, both of which are connected to overall stability.
refers to the taken-for-granted process in which a problem comes to be defined and treated by the social institution of medicine. A behavior undergoes medicalization when both the definition of the problem and the therapy intended to improve it are couched in medical terms.
The Hawthorne Effect
the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed.
The Thomas theorem
"If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences."
In other words, the interpretation of a situation causes the action. This interpretation is not objective. Actions are affected by subjective perceptions of situations. Whether there even is an objectively correct interpretation is not important for the purposes of helping guide individuals' behavior.
When an individual changes some aspect of social status (eg. employed to unemployed) but still maintains the same relative status (same income)
Absolute Threshold of Sensation
MIn. to detect 50% of the time; Can be influenced by expectations, experience, motivation, alertness
Help detect linear acceleration
Principles of perception;
Similarity - similar items grouped together
pragnanz - organized into simplest (ex. olympic rings)
Normally rod is turned on, but when light hits - turns off. When off, it turns on bipolar cell which turns on retinal ganglion cell, which goes into optic nerve and enters brain. Rods are more sensitive to light, and have slower recovery time
Visual Field Processing
All right visual field goes to the left side of the brain, and vice versa
the brain simultaneously processes incoming stimuli of differing quality. This is most important in vision, as the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps the brain identify what you are viewing. The brain then combines all four components into the field of view that you see and comprehend. This is a continual and seamless operation.
Hair cells @ the base of the cochlea - activated by high frequency, and at the apex - by low frequency
From cochlea, hair cells send action potential to (finally) primary auditory cortex. Has tonotypical mapping
Proprioception vs. Kinaesthasia
Kinaesthasia does not include balance
5 main tastes
bitter, salty, sweet, sour, umami (ability to taste glutamate)
Beta Waves (13-30Hz) - awake, concentration
Alpha Waves (8-13Hz) - daydreaming. Disappear in drowsiness, but appear in deep sleep
Theta Waves (7Hz) - Drowsiness, right after u fall asleep
Delta Waves (.5-3Hz) - Deep Sleep or coma
Sleep Stages Waves
N1: theta, hearing/seeing things that aren't there (hypnagonic hallucinations)
N2: theta, sleep spindles & K complexes (suppress cortical arousal)
N3: delta waves, where walking/talking in sleep happens
REM: muscles paralyzed; dreaming happens. Memory consolidation happens. alpha, beta, and desychronous waves
Circadian Rhythms Control
By melatonin produced by the pineal gland
Dreaming - Why?
Activity in prefrontal cortex is decreased, which is partly responsible for logic
Freud - Manifest content (monster chasing u) and Latent (means job pushing you out)
Activation Synthesis - lots of neural impulses in brainstem (activation), which can sometimes be interpreted in frontal cortex (synthesis)
1 in 20; Stop breathing while sleeping - body realizes not getting enough oxygen and wake up gasping then fall back asleep. Can happen 100x a night Don't get enough N3 (slow-wave) sleep. Snoring is an indication, or fatigue in the morning
Cheyne Stokes Breathing
in lungs or chest, hyperventilation can occur (high pCO2, low pO2). Caused by medication/obesity Chronically elevated pCO2 can lead to right side heart failure
Dissociation Theory - extreme form of divided consciousness
Social Influence Theory - people do what's expected of them
lower neural activity; think more slowly, disrupt REM sleep, remove inhibitions. E.g. alcohol
Depress your CNS, used to induce sleep or reduce anxiety
Most common suppressant. Enhance response to GABA.
NOT a depressant. Used to treat pain and anxiety. e.g. heroine and morphine. Act at receptors for endorphins. Lead to euphoria
Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, nicotine, etc. Disrupt sleep. Cocaine is strong - releases so much dopamine, serotonin, and norE that it depletes brain's supply.
Amphetamines and meth also trigger dopamine release, and euphoria can last for 8 hrs. Highly addictive
Ecstasy (stimulant & hallu), increases dopamine and serotonin
Some are used for PTSD treatment. Less addictive
Dopamine produced in VTA. VTA sends to Amygdala, Hippocampus, Nucleus Accumbens, Prefrontal Cortex. Dopamine goes up
Substance use disorders
work w/ patients to find intrinsic motivation to change
Exogenous (loud noise)
Endogenous(prior knowledge, cocktail party effect)
not aware of stuff in our visual field when attention is elsewhere in the field
Selective Attention Theories
Broadbent's Theory: Sensory register -> selective register -> higher lvl processing
Deutch&Deutch: Sensory-> higher lvl processing-> selective
Treisman Attenuation Theory: sensory -> attenuator...
Spotlight Model of Attention
Take in from all 5 senses, but don't pay attention to everything. Some are unconscious level. Priming - exposure to a stimulus affects response to another stimulus
Dual Coding Hypothesis
Easier to remember words associated with images than either one alone
Way of learning by thinking of new info and how it relates to you personally. Also preparing to teach to someone else
Ebbinghaus first investigator. When we don't encode something well or retrieve for a while, we can't at all anymore. Relearning is faster
Retroactive Interference (new impairs old)
Proactive (old impairs new)
Memory with aging
Improve: semantic, crystallized IQ (ability to use knowledge/exp) & emotional intelligence
Decline: Fluidity, recall, episodic memories, prospective memory (remembering to do shit in the future)
Dementia; Symptoms are memory loss, attention, planning semantic memory loss, etc. Build up of amyloid plaques in the brain
lack of vitamin B1 or thiamine. First stage is Wernicke's encephalopathy
occurs when it is assumed that multiple specific conditions are more probable than a single general one.
Availability vs. Representative Decision Making
Available = actual memories
Rep = prototype of idea; leads to conjunction fallacy
Theories of Language - Intro
Behaviorist - language is conditioned behavior
Nativist - language must be innate
Materialist - look at what happens in the brain when someone reads/writes
Interactionist - interplay between environmental cues and innate biology
More Language Theories
Universalism - thought determines language completely
Piaget - first children learnt to think a certain way, then developed language to describe thoughts
Vygotsky - language and thoughts were both independent, but converge through development
Strong Linguistic Determinism; Sapir Whorfian
the structure of a language determines a native speaker's perception and categorization of experience.
Nativist Language (Noam Chomsky)
born w/ ability to learn language
Form of behavior learned through operant conditioning
biological + social -> language in children; Desire to communicate gives language
speech formation; frontal lobe
understanding; temporal lobe
Connects broca and wernicke. if damaged - conduction aphasia.
Limbic System Mnemonic
Hippo wearing a HAT
Components of Emotion
Phsyiological - > HR increases
Cognitive -> mental assessments. Result from emotions, and can cause emotions
Behavioral -> emotions may cause behavior
Theories of Emotion
James Lange: physiological -> emotion
Cannon Bard: physiological = emotion
Schacter Singer: physiological + cognitiion = emotion
Lazarus: Cognition -> emotion + physiological
Appraisal Theory of Stress
less from actual event, more from our cognitive interpretation of the event
Perceivable but hard to control. E.g. noise, crowding
Tend and befriend
Good response to stress may be to have support system. Oxytocin -> peer bonding
You learn from having control ripped out of hands that you don't have control;so you lose the ability to identify coping mechanisms because taking less control of outcome of yourlife
Perceived Control (taking back some)
Helps w/ Stress management; Perspective change. Work w/ counselor
how to stand in line, how to treat peers, etc. learned at school. we internalize social inequalities, when boys /girls treated differently
Classless, moneyless community where all property is owned by the community
Expectations in society that allow you to take a break from responsibilities. If you don't get better though u become a deviant
process of being ill and how people cope with illness; being ill can change a person's identity
Functionalism - Society Size
Small societies held together by similarities; Large -: individuals become interdependent. Socialchange threatens mutual dependence. Institutions change only enough to maintain mutual interdependence
Main criticism of social construction
doesn't consider effects of natural phenomenon on society
Part of feminist theory; women's oppression are due to capitalism, patriarchy, and racism
Rational Choice Theory
People are motivated to do what's best to get more good. Cost benefit analysis
Application of rational choice theory to social interactions
social conditions/ individual's health can affect their social mobility and affect reproductive rates of individuals
Functionalism to medicine
when people become ill medicine ensures they return to functional state
Conflict Theory to medicine
wealthier get better healthcare; poorer get worse and are sick longer
Social Construction to medicine
stereotyped assumptions on both sides; medicalization - construct illness out of ordinary behavior
Symbolic interaction to medicine
Rational Choice/Exchange to Medicine
What's the purpose of medicine? Is it capitalist to earn $$$?
Sociology studies these age groups because they all live through the same life events in a certain time
Age Stratification Theory
age stratification refers to the hierarchical ranking of people into age groups within a society. Age stratification could also be defined as a system if inequalities linked to age.
Disengagement Theory of Aging
"aging is an inevitable, mutual withdrawal or disengagement, resulting in decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs to".
theory of normal aging states that older adults will usually maintain the same activities, behaviors, relationships as they did in their earlier years of life.
Social construct. Two factors: identity and expression. e.g. biological male and identify as male (cis-gender). Some people are gender queer
Gender Schema Theory
refers to the theory that children learn about what it means to be male and female from the culture in which they live.
organized info about order of actions appropriate to familiar situation
Fertility vs. Fecundity
fecundity is the ability to have babies and fertility is the rate at which women actually have babies
World's Systems Theory
world into 3 countries: Core, periphery, semi-periphery. Criticised on being focused on core
Positive: better allocation of resources, higher output, more employment, cheaper. Cultural practices spread = diffusion
Negative: Exploitation, outsourcing hurts core country
Relative Deprivation Theory: groups oppressed/deprived of rights that others in society enjoy
Mass Society Theory: skepticism about groups - says they only form for people seeking refuge from main society (e.g. nazism
Resource Mobilization Theory: Looks at factors that help/hinder social movements like access to resources.
Rational Choice Theory: people compare pros and cons of different course of action and chose best for themselves
Culture vs. Society
culture = way of life; society = way people organize themselves
meso-level subcommunity; can support people throughout their lifespan
can't support people throughout their lifespan, e.g. college sororities
When laws of common society are violated; e.g. polygamy
Culture takes time to catch up w/ tech innovations; resulting in social problems.
Transmission of social inequality from one generation to another
from the poverty magnet, the ill-health magnet, discrimination magnet; education, housing, employment all can do this
separating out people and giving them access to separate resources within the same society. Idea is 'separate but equal' but it rarely works out. can cause social isolation
Law/public institutions can do this
Looks at fair distribution of environmental benefits and burdens within the same society
Index of Dissimilarity
0 = total segregation; 100 = perfect distribution
awareness of one's place in a system of social classes, especially (in Marxist terms) as it relates to the class struggle.
a way of thinking that prevents a person from perceiving the true nature of their social or economic situation
Case Control Study
Observational study where 2 groups differing in outcome are identified and compared to find a causal factor. e.g. comparing people with the disease with those who don't but are otherwise similar
whether the tool is measuring what it is intended to measure
time related confounding variables
when you're testing a drug that's, say, injected intravenously dissolved in saline, then the vehicular control condition is just injecting the saline (the vehicle for the drug) by itself, to make sure that it's the drug, not the vehicle, that's having an effect on the subject.
Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
difference between classical and operant is that operant has the addition or removal of a reward or punishment, whereas classical is pairing two things so that you respond to one thing the same way you would spend to another.
Lower Motor Neurons
Efferent neurons of the PNS; control skeletal muscle. Abnormalities of LMN cause: atrophy of skeletal muscle, fasciculations (involuntary twitching), hypotonia, hyporeflexia
Somatosensation 5 types
position, vibration, touch, pain, temperature.
Position, vibration, touch = mechanoreceptors; pain = nocioceptors; temp= thermoreceoptrs
Grey, white matter
Gray matter contains somas. White matter contains myelinated axons. In brain, gray is outside; in spinal cord, gray is inside
Upper Motor Neurons
UMNs control the LMNs. Found in the cerebral cortex, and synapse on the LMN. UMN signs: Hyperreflexia, clonus (rhythmic contractions of antagonist muscle), hypertonia, extensor plantar response (if u take a hard object and scrape along bottom of foot, normal response is flexor - toes will come down on the object. But with extensor, toes extend up)
motor, prefrontal, Broca's
Somatosensor, spatial manipulation
Vision, striate cortex
Reticular Activation System
required for consciouness
Glutamate - most excitatory
GABA and Glycine - most common inhibitory
Ach - nuclei in frontal lobe that releases it to cerebral cortex; LMN and ANS use it
Histamine - sent by Hypothalamus
Serotonin - raphe nuclei in midbrain/medulla
Dopamine - VTA and substantia nigra
image from MRI along with Blood Flow (to see what's active)
can't give us detail of structure, but can combine them with CAT scans and MRIs. Inject glucose into cells and see what areas of brain are more active at given point in time
Personality, Temperament, Character
Personality: relatively stable predispositions for behaviour that is partially learned. Examples include extroversion, conscientiousness, openness.
Temperament: innate behavioral predispositions. Examples include intensity of emotion, persistence, attention span, reactivity.
Character: this is a more philosophical notion. It is your actions according to your beliefs. Character can be measured in virtues like honesty, compassion.
Incentive Theory of Motivation
we are pulled into action by extrinsic incentives. +ve reinforcement. E.g. study hard to get good grades
A LEARNED tendency to evaluate tings in a certain way - people, events, objects.
3 components: ABC
Cognitive (thought / idea formation)
Theory of Planned Behavior
The theory states that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and behaviors.
Attitude to Behavior Process Model
event -> attitude. Then, attitude + outside knowledge -> behavior
Prototype Willingness Model
behavior is a function of 6 things: Past behavior, attitude, subjective norms, intentions, willingness to engage in behavior, prototype/models
Elaboration Likelihood Model for Persuation
More cognitive approach. Focuses on why/how of persuasion.
Central - depends on argument quality
Peripheral - superficial/nonverbal cues
1) Message Characteristics
2) Source Characteristics
3) Target Characteristics
Behavior Influence Attitude
Foot in the Door - tend to agree to small actions first
Role-Playing. Overtime what feels like acting becomes you. Zimbardo's prison experiment
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Dissonance between 2 or more conflicting cognitiions: ideas, beliefs, values, emotional reactions.
Things we do:
1) Modify cognititions
4) Deny facts
1) consistency (does he usually behave this way)
2) Distinctiveness (does he behave differently in different situations)
3) Consensus (do others think the same)
Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
personality is formed through conflicts among three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego.
Deterministic theory: Behavior is determined by UNCONSCIOUS desires
Humanistic Theory of Personality
Carl Rogers; emphasizes the importance of the self-actualizing tendency in forming a self-concept. Focuses on conscious, and says people are inherently good and self motivated to improve. First theorist of this was Maslow.
Conditions for Self Actualization in Humanistic Theory
2) Acceptance from others
both together gives self concept
Need congruence in our actions to be fulfilled
The degree to which a person assumes leadership roles in social situations. Seems to be a trait. Common in twins reared separately
Tendency to follow authority
Behaviorist Theory of Personality
Deterministic - people begin as blank slates. Personality is the result of learned behavior patterns based on a person's environment. Focuses on observable and measurable behavior rather than mental stuff
Skinner - strict behaviorist
Pavlov - classical conditioning
Connects observable theories like behaviorist to mental like psychoanalytic. Treats thinking as a behavior, so it has a lot in common with behavior theory
Trait Theory of Personality
Gordon Allport: list of 4500 diff. traits in 3 categories: cardinal, central, secondary. All of us have diff. traits
Raymond Cattell: 16 essential personality traits; 16PF questionnaire
Hans Eysenck: 3 major dimensions of personality: Extroversion, neuroticism, psychotism. We express to different levels. Not everyone has psychotism
5 Factor Model (Big 5): OCEAN Openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Social Cognitive Theory of Behavior
emphasizes interactions between people and environment. Unlike behaviorism, where environment controls entirely, cognition is also important. Social factors, observational learning, and environmental factors all can influence beliefs.
Learning Performance Distinction (part of Obs. Learning)
learning a behavior and performing it are 2 different things
Schizophrenia Spectrum and other Psychotic Disorders
Involves distress/disability from psychosis. Psychosis involves delusions (not explainable by experiences/culture), hallucinations
Cluster A: odd/eccentric
Cluster B: intense emotional/relationship problems
Cluster C: anxious/avoidant/obssessive
Somatic Symptom Disorders
symptoms similar to those that may occur to illness unrelated to mental disorder, but psychological origin. E.g. someone has abdominal pain, caused by stress
Sexual arousal to unusual stimuli
most prominent in psychosis category. delusions, hallucinations.
1) cerebral cortex reduced in size
2) perhaps dopamine higher
3) mesocorticolimbic pathway causes cognitive symptoms
4) limbic structure causes -ve symptoms
5) temporal cortex causes +ve
No consistent abnormalities in brain tissues.
Abnormal activity in frontal lobe (decreased) and limbic (inc)
Changes in serotonin, dopamine, and NE
Alzheimer's - Biological
Most common in dementia category.
Loss of cognitive functions and memory, but motor functions are fine until later stages.
Cerebrum atrophies. Starts in temporal lobes (imp. for memory)
3 Main abnormalities:
1) amyloid plaques
2) loss of neurons (first to go is in nucleus basalis - ACh)
3) tangles (clumps of protein tau)
Motor abnormalities. Tremor, increased muscle tone, abnormal walking, poor balance.
Abnormalities visible to naked eye.
- substantia nigra is less dark/not dark at all. Loss of only dopaminergic neurons.
- many neurons contain lewy bodies. In PD this alpha synuclein protein appears to be clumped together
subs. nigra is part of the basal ganglia which plays a major role in motor function.
leading cand. for stem cell treatment since only 1 type of cell affected
Tendency for people to bring behavior in line with group norms. e.g. obey traffic lights
1) Informative Influence: look to group for guidance
2) Normative Influence: to avoid social rejection
2 ways to conform:
1) publically: outwardly changing, but maintaining inner beliefs
2) privately: changing behaviors
when maintaining harmony among group members is more important than carefully analyzing the problem at hand. Happens in cohesive groups, with 'respected' leaders
Enhancement of a groups already existing attitudes through discussion within the group. Can lead to confirmation bias
How we obey authority; compared to conformity which is changing behavior to match a group
Behavior/conformity for reward or to avoid a punishment. Goes away if reward is removed
dress like someone famous. Do this as long as u respect that person
idea/belief/behavior has been integrated into our own. Strongest kind of conformity
Asch Conformity Studies
1/3 of people agree with the obvious mistruths to go along with the group (line study)
"we could never commit acts like this"
Fundamental Attribution Errors
People in out-groups behave a certain ways because of their personalities/flaws
More individualistic cultures (Western), success is attributed to internal factors and failure to external. In collectivist cultures, opposite
Situational - because of the situation
dispositional - because of the internal characteristics
loss of self awareness and self restraint, typically in a sense of anomie (mob situation).
Easier to behave badly towards individuals who suffer from it (Zimbardo Prison)
Likelihood of someone conforming
Group size: common in 3-5
Unanimity: if opinions of group are unanimous
Group Status: doctor> gardener
Group cohesion: if we care, we conform
Observed Behav: is it observed?
Public Response: acceptance vs. shaming
Cultures like US/Europe that emphasize individual achievement are less likely to conform
Role model of defiance
More likely to disobey if we see someone else doing the same
Diffusion of responsibility theory - someone else will do it.
Social Facilitation vs. Social Loafing
Facilitation: presence of others increases your arousal
Loafing: put forth less effort in group task
Folkways: mildest type of norm - open the door
Mores: norms based on some moral value/belief e.g. truthfullness
Laws: formal consequences
Taboo: completely wrong, often punishable by law
when norm is violated. Doesn't have to be -ve, just individuals behaving differently from what society feels is normal
Theory of Differential Association
Association with deviant people will increase likelihood of deviance
people come to identify and behave in ways that reflect how others label them. It is most commonly associated with the sociology of crime and deviance, where it is used to point out how social processes of labeling and treating someone as criminally deviant actually fosters deviant behavior and has negative repercussions for that person because others are likely to be biased against them because of the label.
Primary Deviance: no big consequences, mild deviance
2ndary: more serious consequences
if person is blocked from attaining a culturally accepted goal, may turn to deviance.
society puts pressure on individuals to achieve socially accepted goals (such as the American dream) though they lack the means, this leads to strain which may lead the individuals to commit crimes.
Not the same as group behavior.
It is time limited, involves short social interactions.
Collectives have loose norms while groups have strongly defined norms. Often driven by group dynamics such as deindividualization.
3 types: Fads, mass hysteria, riots
Mass hysteria: large # of people experience same delusions at the same time
behaviour toward a stimulus changes in the absence of any apparent associated stimulus or event (such as a reward or punishment).
1) Habituation: person tunes out stimulus
2) dishabituation: previously habituated stimulus is removed
3) Sensitization: increase in responsiveness to a repeated stimlus
learning that certain events occur together. Two types: classical (has neutral stimuli) and operant conditioning
Reinforcement: increase behavior
Punishment: decrease behavior
A token economy is a form of behavior modification designed to increase desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior with the use of tokens. Individuals receive tokens immediately after displaying desirable behavior. The tokens are collected and later exchanged for a meaningful object or privilege.
Part of operant conditioning. Successively reinforce behaviors that approximate the target behavior
Operant Conditioning: Escape and Avoidance Learning
The 2 types of aversive control.
1) Escape: ex. fire
2) Avoidance: avoid fire before it arrives
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
Humans have desires, which aren't necessarily bad. But they can become temptation when they conflict with our long-term values and goals
focussing on long term goals while putting off short term temptations
idea that self control is a limited resource. if u use a lot of it, it can get used up.
Improving Self Control
1) change environment
2) operant conditioning - reinforce good behaviors with rewards
3) classical conditioning - healthy chocolate every time u crave chocolate
4) deprivation - removing something completely is problematic. can make u want it more, and leads to ego depletion
how someone perceives/evaluates themselves.
1) existential self: most basic concept, of being separate and distinct from others
2) Categorical Self: become aware that even though we're separate, we also exist in the world with others
Humanistic Theory Self Concept
1) self image
2) self esteem
3) ideal self
Social Identity Theory
1) personal identity
2) social identity
Self Esteem, Self Efficacy, Locus
Self Esteem = respect and regard for oneself
Self Efficacy = belief in one's abilities
1) mastery of experience
2) social modeling
3) social persuasion
4) psychological responses
Theories of Development
Freud = Psychosexual, 5 stages, fixation
Erikson = Psychosocial, 6 stages, overcoming conflict
Vygotsky = sociocultural
Kohlberg = Moral Development Theory, 3x2 stages
Freud's Psychosexual Dev. Theory
First 5 years are crucial
OLD AGE PARROTS LOVE GRAPES (oral 0-1, anal 1-3, phallic 3-6, latent 6-12, genitals 12+)
Erikson's Psychosocial Dev. Theory
Influenced by Freud but based on culture and society, room for growth throughout life
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Development
Role social interaction plays in the development of cognition
Babies have 4 elementary mental functions: attention, sensation, perception, memory. These develop into higher mental functions.
Independent Learning and thinking
1) requires an MKO
2) Zone of Proximal Development
Kohlberg's Moral Development
Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional.
Charles Cooley - Looking Glass Self
We are not actually being influenced by the opinions of others, but what we imagine the opinions of others to be
Bad things happen to others, not to us
Kelley's Covariation Model of Attribution
1) Consistency (internal factors)
2) Distinctiveness (situational)
3) Consensus (People, more = situational)
We are victims of circumstance, but others are willful actors
More susceptible to prejudice. They're obedient to superiors, but don't have much sympathy for those they deem inferior. They are oppressive. Inflexible, rigid thinkers. Use prejudice to protect their ego and avoid confronting aspects of themselves.
Frustration Agression Hypothesis
Not personality based, but more emotional.
When people perceive that they are being prevented from achieving a goal, their frustration is likely to turn to aggression. Often towards minorities. Seen in times of economic hardship
1) Social Stigma: can be due to prejudice, stereotypes, discrimination, etc. E.g. against mental illnesses
2) Self Stigma: internalize all negative stereotypes... , may feel rejected by society
The Halo Effect
People have inherently good/bad natures, rather than looking at individual characteristics.
Physical attractiveness stereotype - attractive people have more positive personality traits
Judging someone else's culture from the position of your own culture
can lead to cultural bias and prejudice
Judge other culture from within their culture. No absolute right or wrong, but we have different cultures who are themselves valid
Mere Exposure Effect
Repeated exposure to novel people or objects increases our liking for them
Unrelated Physiological Arousal
Unrelated sympathetic arousal can lead to higher attraction
We will not befriend people different from us
We assume people have the same beliefs as we do
We assume everyone agrees with what we do, even if they don't
physical/verbal behavior intended to harm or destroy
- Reinforcement Modeling (parents who given in to temper tantrums)
Altruism Ulterior Motives
Kin Selection - more altruistic to kin
Reciprocal Altruism - if they will see in future
Cost Signaling - to show they have resources
Empathy Altruism Hypothesis
Some people are altruistic due to empathy. Early development trajectory - some new borns cry when other new borns cry. Helping behavior begins around age 2; age 4 actually begin helping
Expression of confidence/encouragement. Provided by teachers, therapists, etc.
financial support, goods, or services
The type that gives someone a sense of belonging
When u can't carry out all obligations within one status - e.g. student
conflict between multiple statuses, e.g. someone who is a parent, friend, student, etc.
Erving Goffman - people planned their conduct, and act differently alone than in public
Front Stage Self: in social setting
Back Stage: more private area, when act is over
Our attempt to control how others see us on the front stage. Multiple front stages, and u play a different role each time.
Backstage: where you work on impression management, e.g. try out different outfits
Side effect discrimination: one institution/sector can influence another negatively
Past-in-Present Discrimination: how things done in the past can have consequences for people in the present
designed for a specific purpose, try for maximum efficiency.
Utilitarian: people are paid
Normative: shared goals - e.g. Religious Groups
Coercive: forced -e.g. military, prison
Process by which organizations become increasingly governed by laws and policy.
Iron Rule of Oligoarchy
Even the most democratic of organization become more beaureucratic over time, until they are governed by a select few. Why? because once person gains leadership role, hesitant to give it up.
Characteristics of Ideal Bureaucracy: Max Weber
Division of Labor
Hierarchy of Organization
Written Rules and Regulations
Employment based on Technical Qualifications
In a bureaucracy, every employee keeps getting promoted until they reach level of incompetence
Give information to themselves, e.g. bats and echolocation
Giving human qualities to non-humans; e.g. dog sleeping with u at night
Search for food in environment
1) Solitary Foraging
2) Group Foraging
Foraging behavior is strongly driven by genetics, but can also be learned
is the number of offspring equivalents an individual rears, rescues or otherwise supports through its behavior (regardless of who begets them).
Inclusive fitness is thinking about fitness on a larger scale - evolutionary advantageous for animals to propagate survival of closely related individuals and genes in addition to themselves.
Evolutionary Game Theory
tells us those with best fit to the environment will survive and pass on to offspring, and those genes will become more common in successive generations. Predicts avaialability of resources and social behavior. Strategy of each individual depends on strategy exhibited by other players.
However, game theory involves intention reasonsing about behaviors of others. Evolutionary game theory is dfferent because decisions may not be conscious. E.g. Altruism.
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