Lit 209 final (Anton Smith)
Terms in this set (66)
"Rip Van Winkle" & "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
First published when 19
Last published when 76
First American of the 19th century to earn international literary reputation
Inventor of modern short story
First American to support himself through writing
Started the magazine salmagundi
Hated the law
Went bankrupt in England and turned back to writing
Rip Van Winkle
New American/over grown child
Goes from living as a subject of king George 3 to an American
Explores changes after American revolution
Expresses drastic changes are vital for a society to grow
Dame van winkle
Work ethic of Benjamin Franklin
Derrick van bummel
The schoolmaster of Rip Van Winkle's village, Van Bummel is a dapper and learned little man. He is not intimidated by words of any length. He ends up being a great general in the Revolutionary War and getting a seat in Congress.
Rip Van Winkle's daughter, with whom he lives quite happily with after his return from the mountain.
Celebrated the beauties of life
When they looked at the individual, they saw hope.
a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
Baltus van tassel
is a thriving and contented farmer, father of Katrina, who is perfectly happy within the confines of his farm. He lives abundantly but not proudly.
Brom van brunt
is Ichabod Crane's greatest rival in the fight for Katrina's hand. He is boisterous, burly, and the hero of the area, known for his heroics and feats of strength, for which he earns the nickname Brom Bones. He is especially for skilled on horseback. He is mischievous, but he is often motivated by goodwill. He is most likely the one in disguise as the Headless Horseman.
Hans van ripper
is a choleric old farmer who is housing Ichabod Crane at the time of the Van Tassels' party. He lends Ichabod the horse on that fateful night.
native of Connecticut,comes to Sleepy Hollow to work as a schoolteacher and singing master. His erudition and skill at singing are disputed only by the narrator. He is tall and extremely thin with a huge appetite and a certain amount of greed. He can dance. He is especially interested in ghost stories and the supernatural, because he believes in it. His attempt to woo Katrina Van Tassel fails just before he meets the headless horseman, who is most likely his primary competition in disguise
Katrina van tassel
The only child of a wealthy farmer. is eighteen and universally known for both her beauty and her riches. She is also a flirt, and she always dresses to show off her best features. She is one of Ichabod's singing students, and she is the object of his desires.
spirit or aspirations common to the whole of a nation.
Process by which the country is split up by economic, political, and social views
American's desires to move west
Over 50 years, America tripled in size
Invented the reaper (cut and bundled grain) with Jo Anderson
Invented/perfected the steam boat
Invented the cotton gin
The Louisiana Purchase
New territories added to US in 1801.
Bought by Jefferson
Lewis & Clark's expeditions
War of 1812
American victory over England
National identity emerged
Democratic ideals that offered opportunities to ordinary people
The Missouri compromise
an act of Congress (1820) by which Missouri was admitted as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and slavery was prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36°30′N, except for Missouri
an African-American slave who led a slave rebellion(40 slaves) in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 55 white deaths.
James Fenimore Cooper
"The last of the Mohicans"
Born in Burlington, NJ
son of wealthy land owning judge
Attended Yale at 13 but expelled in his 3rd year
Sent to sea as a merchant marine
Spent 3 years in the navy
The leatherstocking tales
1740-1800 series of five novels by James Fenimore Cooper
Explores the imperial, racial, and social conflicts central to the emergence of the United States
Natty Bumppo is the protagonist of the series. Although he is the child of white parents, he grew up with Native Americans, becoming a near-fearless warrior skilled in many weapons, one of which is the long rifle
Fort William Henry
a British fort at the southern end of Lake George in the province of New York. It is best known as the site of notorious atrocities committed by Indians against the surrendered British and provincial troops following a successful French siege in 1757
Hawkeye (natty bumppo)
main protagonist of the novel, he is a white man who has spent most of his life in the company of the Mohicans. A strange mixture of intolerance and humanity, Hawkeye is able to renounce most of his European heritage, but he can never be truly Indian
the father of Uncas, he is also a friend of Hawkeye. This character exemplifies the reverence of age in Indian cultures. He is an almost divine figure, full of wisdom and unruffled by events that befall him. The only thing that makes him emotional is his son
the young Mohican who is one of Hawkeye's bosom companions, as well as a protagonist. the symbol of a people who have died out. He has the nature of an Indian, but is exceedingly more gentle than the stereotype that Europeans hold in their mind. We might call him the noble savage.
Major Duncan Hayward
a major in the English army whose mission is to guard the daughters of his superior. Duncan is a well-meaning youth who prizes the maidens, especially Alice, but he is fully unprepared to deal with the treachery of the wilderness. He is a white man trying to fight Indian battles. This incompatibility almost always results in failure on his part to complete various duties. He exists in contrast to Hawkeye, a white man who is much more fully adapted to Indian warfare.
Marquis de Montcalm
the commander of the French forces, he shows himself to be a shrewd leader, but merciful and kind during the surrender of the English. The reader should be aware that he is based on an actual person. How accurate this representation is cannot be certain.
a chief in the neighboring Huron tribe, he is the antagonist of the novel. His evil nature exists in stark contrast to the goodness of the Mohicans. He is a villain because of the misfortunes he has suffered at the hands of European conquerors. We might see him as a case of colonization gone awry. For this reason Magua is a sympathetic and a deplorable character.
Lt colonel George Munro
commander of the British forces, he is blustering and loving at the same time. His love for his daughters is great, as is his patriotism. He is an optimist and therefore a good military leader. However, like Duncan, his European fight tactics render him helpless in the face of Indian enemies.
the younger sister, she loves and respects Cora tremendously. She is the typical maiden, light-hearted and weak, prone to fainting and crying. Her innocence and purity garner the sympathy of the reader, but we cannot like her as much as we like Cora, who makes real contributions to the welfare of the group
the elder sister, she is a voice of reason and strength. As a woman who has mixed blood, and is coveted by both Uncas and Magua, she becomes a symbol of cultural meetings, as well as a symbol of European pride. By far she is one of the most admirable characters, with a mothering, selfless nature that cares only to keep her sister safe
Indian removal act
The Indian Removal Act was a law passed by Congress in 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. It authorized the president to negotiate with Indian tribes in the Southern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands
Worchester v. Georgia
held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional
The trail of tears
is a name given to the ethnic cleansing and forced relocation of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the route to their destinations.
Edger Allan Poe
"The raven" "Annabel lee"
Gifted but unaccepted author
Master of poetry & superb writer of short story
Born in Boston 1809
Parents were actors.
Mother-died of tuberculosis
John and Francis Allen took him in
Attended University of Virginia but forced out by debt
Moved to Boston and published Tamerlane & other poems
1828, enlisted in the army
Expelled from West Point
Married cousin Virginia
Editor of Burton's Gentlemen's magazine
First collection of short stories "tales of grotesque & arabesque"
"The murders in rue morgue"
-First detective story
Collapsed and taken to hospital where he died
Hidden evil, obsession with death, deformity
Peering into darkness at the supernatural
When they look at the individual, they see potential of evil
in poetry, the repetition of the sound of a vowel or diphthong in nonrhyming stressed syllables near enough to each other for the echo to be discernible (ex: penitence, reticence )
agreement or compatibility between opinions or actions
the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.
exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
"Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass"
Born in Maryland between 1816-1818
Separated from mother as an infant and she died when he was 7
Owners wife taught him the alphabet
15, was sent to a poor farmer where he was whipped regularly (master covey)
Successfully escaped September 3, 1838 with seaman papers
British sympathizer bought his freedom
Abolitionist inspired by William Lloyd Garrison
Spoke at Harpers ferry with John brown
William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionist that helps Douglass.
anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator
white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States
Frederick Douglass spent a night speaking with John Brown, after which he wrote, "From this night spent with John Brown in Springfield, Mass. 1847 while I continued to write and speak against slavery, I became all the same less hopeful for its peaceful abolition. My utterances became more and more tinged by the color of this man's strong impressions"
Ralph Waldo Emerson
"Self-reliance" "the poet"
Essayist, poet, and philosopher
Son of minister, William Emerson who died when he was 8
Aunt educated her 4 nephews
Attended Boston Latin school
14, Harvard college
Worked as a teacher at older brothers school
Became minister at Harvard divinity
Bacame Chaplin of senate in Massachusetts
Married Ellen tucker who died 1 1/2 years later
Intellectual movement during the New England renaissance
(Literary & philosophical)
All forms of being (god,nature, humanity) are spiritually united through a shared universal soul or "over-soul"
Believe in Jesus.
Participation in the Sacrament could not alone affect one's salvation.
Severe punishment for sinning
life should revolve around religion and the reading of the Bible and how it's interpreted
Shouldn't call attention to themselves
No candles or symbols in service
"The ministers black veil" "rappaccini's daughter"
Born in Salem, Massachusetts
Ancestor of John Hathorne (judge in Salem witch trials)
Anti-transcendentalist (humans deep capacity for evil)
Other ancestor ordered whipping of Quaker woman
Spent many years in seclusion
Held several jobs
Believed spiritual truth maybe ugly or frightening. Dark side of puritan beliefs: idea of original sin and the human potential for evil.
19th century writers
Main character who wears the veil
Makes the towns people nervous about his change
Simple, brief story that teaches a moral lesson
Dr. of plants
Plays a god role
Beautiful daughter of Rappaccini, whats to be normal
plays the role of eve in back story
Love interest with Beatrice.
Lives in the tower that overlooks the garden.
there attending school.
Plays Adam in the backstory
Was once friends with Rappaccini
a scientist that ultimately kills Beatrice
Harriet Jacobs ( Linda Brent)
Wrote the life of a slave girl
Detailed the sexual harassment and the abuse she suffered as a slave in North Carolina and her eventual escape
Hundred dollar reward for Harriet after she escaped
The narrator of the work published under the name Linda Brent, Harriet tells the story of her childhood and youth as a slave; her persecution from the lascivious Dr. Flint and her relationship with Mr. Sands; her escape to the north and her attempts to protect her children; and her eventual emancipation. She evinces intelligence, fortitude, sympathy, and virtue. She struggles with her choice to engage in premarital sex with Mr. Sands, but tells her readers they have no right to judge her and that free and slave women should be judged differently. She emphasizes her selfless identity as a mother as well as her position as a voice for the slaves still in bondage. An excellent storyteller, she fills her memoir with exciting moments from her adventures, plaintive laments about the horrors of slavery, and compelling arguments for the humanity and dignity of slaves.
young unmarried son of a lawyer, Mr. Sands enters into a sexual relationship with Harriet; she bears two children, Benny and Ellen. Mr. Sands appears free of most racial prejudice and treats Harriet kindly. He tries to buy Harriet's children and eventually succeeds, purchasing them and William. He is disappointed when William leaves him and assumes he will return. He wins a seat in Congress and moves north; Harriet's worries for her children's fates pushes him to place Ellen with relatives of his in Brooklyn. He marries and has children with his new wife.
A wealthy man with many properties and a multitude of slaves, Dr. Flint is Harriet's greatest enemy in that he pursues her relentlessly out of lust and does everything he can to make her life and her children's lives miserable. He is hypocritical, duplicitous, and manipulative. He is a jealous man, afraid of his son and other men who might become involved with Harriet. He never gives up trying to find Harriet after she escapes. He exemplifies the worst type of slaveholder and is completely lacking in sympathy or humanity.
Henry David Thoreau
"Resistance to civil government" "walden"
Tutor, surveyor, pencil manufacturer
Handyman for Ralph Waldo Emerson
Filled in for Fredrick Douglas at a Boston convention.
Moved slave through the underground railroad
Statement that appears to contradict itself but actually hold a kind of truth
"Song of myself"
Born near Huntington, Long Island
Editor of the brooklyn eagle
Lived in New Orleans 4 months working at daily crescent
Experiences slavery and nature first hand
Influenced by Italian opera, Shakespeare, and bible
Understood evil, blackness of vision, and found it fascinating
Born in NY
wealthy parents, but business failed
Left school at 15
Worked as clerk, teacher, farmer
Whaler, went to Liverpool and South Pacific and had brutalizing experiences
Married Elizabeth shaw and worked hard to keep up her wealthy lifestyle(dad was judge)
Met Hawthorne and kept in touch
Another copyist. He is an elderly drunk, productive in the mornings but sloshed by the afternoons. When drunk, he is highly excitable. He and Nippers provide comic relief, and are caricatures rather than rounded characters
Another copyist. He is a young man plagued, as the narrator tells us, by the two evils of ambition and indigestion. His indigestion makes him irritable and angry in the morning, but as it fades he becomes more calm. Thus Nippers is productive when Turkey is not, and vice-versa
The pale and forlorn scrivener, or legal copyist. Bartleby is incredibly passive, quiet, never becoming angry. But he is also unyielding. Life itself is pointless to him, and he cannot pretend enthusiasm for it. His trademark sentence, "I would prefer not to," marks his continuing disengagement from the world. Each time Bartleby utters it, he is refusing not only a task, but one of the rituals that make up a normal life. He ends by "preferring not to" eat, which kills him.