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Blood volume of average adult?

4-6 Liters

what makes blood red?

oxygen, more oxygen = more red

most numerous luekocyte


what are the three granulocytes

esoinophil, basophil, neutrophil

another name for erythrocyte; anucleate formed element

red blood cell

actively phagocytic leukocytes

monocyte, neutrophil


monocyte, gilymophocyte

ancestral cell of platelets


numbers rise during parasite infections


release histamine; promotes inflammation


many are formed in lymphiod tissue


transports oxygen

red blood cell

primarily water, noncellular'the fluid matrix of blood


numbers increase during prolonged infections


the 5 types of white blood cells

eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte

4 classes of nutrients normally found in plasma

sugar (glucose)
amino acids
lipids (fatty acids)

name two gases normally found in plasma

oxygen, carbon dioxide (nitrogen)

name three ions normally found in plasma

Na+, Cl-, Mg2+(HCO3-)

the average lifespan of a RBC is?

100-120 days
ATP reserves used up, membrane fragments, no DNA to direct mRNA synthesis (protien synthesis), and enzymes cannot be made


abnormal increase in the number of WBCs


abnormal increase in the number of RBCs


condition of too few RBCs or of RBC's with hemoglobin deficiencies


abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs

why are hematologic studies of blood so important in the diagnosis of disease?

specific changes from the normal numbers/types of formed elements and/or plasma constituients are characteristic of certain disease states

why is a differential WBC count more valuable than a total WBC count when trying to pin down the specific source of pathology?

a differential count determines the relative percentage of each type of WBC. Increases or decreases in specific WBC populations are often indicative of specific pathogens.


packed cell volume; percent of total blood volume occupied by RBC

if You had high hematocrit, would you expect your hemoglobin determindation to be high or low?

the higher the RBC volume, the higher the hemoglobin determination

what is anticoagulant?

prevents or retards the clotting of blood

what is the body's natural anticoagulant?


if your blood clumped with anti-A and anti-B sera, your ABO blood type would be?

AB, the least common type

what ABO blood groups can AB blood donate

only AB
BUT is the universal receipitant, can recieve blood from A, B, AB, and O

what ABO blood type is most common?

The universal donar, they can donate to any blood type

what is antigen antibody reaction?

donor blood cells coagulate and the patient will die

macrocytic hypochromic anemia caused by?

lack of Vit B12

microcytic hypochromic anemia caused by?

iron deficient diet

sickle cell anemia caused by?

genetic defect that causes hemoglobin to become sharp/spiky

lymphocytic leukemia (chronic) caused by?

a type of bone marrow cancer

eosinophilia is caused by?

tapeworm infestation

normal "least desirable" range for plasma cholesterol concentration


describe the realtionship between hight blood choloesterold levels and cardiovascular diseases.

Hight HDLs are degraded by the liver and eliminated
High LDLs favor cholesterold uptake and deposits in arteriosclerotix plaques which narrow vessels, reduce blood flow to more distal tissues, and increase the risk of thrombus. Narrowing vessels is one cause of hypertension.

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