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40 terms

1 Lab Practicle (14)

Blood
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Blood volume of average adult?
4-6 Liters
what makes blood red?
oxygen, more oxygen = more red
most numerous luekocyte
neurophil
what are the three granulocytes
esoinophil, basophil, neutrophil
another name for erythrocyte; anucleate formed element
red blood cell
actively phagocytic leukocytes
monocyte, neutrophil
agranulocytes
monocyte, gilymophocyte
ancestral cell of platelets
megakaryocycle
numbers rise during parasite infections
eosinophil
release histamine; promotes inflammation
basophil
many are formed in lymphiod tissue
lymphocyte
transports oxygen
red blood cell
primarily water, noncellular'the fluid matrix of blood
plasma
numbers increase during prolonged infections
monocyte
the 5 types of white blood cells
eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte
4 classes of nutrients normally found in plasma
sugar (glucose)
amino acids
lipids (fatty acids)
vitamins
name two gases normally found in plasma
oxygen, carbon dioxide (nitrogen)
name three ions normally found in plasma
Na+, Cl-, Mg2+(HCO3-)
the average lifespan of a RBC is?
100-120 days
ATP reserves used up, membrane fragments, no DNA to direct mRNA synthesis (protien synthesis), and enzymes cannot be made
leukocytosis
abnormal increase in the number of WBCs
polycythemia
abnormal increase in the number of RBCs
anemia
condition of too few RBCs or of RBC's with hemoglobin deficiencies
leukopenia
abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs
why are hematologic studies of blood so important in the diagnosis of disease?
specific changes from the normal numbers/types of formed elements and/or plasma constituients are characteristic of certain disease states
why is a differential WBC count more valuable than a total WBC count when trying to pin down the specific source of pathology?
a differential count determines the relative percentage of each type of WBC. Increases or decreases in specific WBC populations are often indicative of specific pathogens.
hematocrit
packed cell volume; percent of total blood volume occupied by RBC
if You had high hematocrit, would you expect your hemoglobin determindation to be high or low?
high
the higher the RBC volume, the higher the hemoglobin determination
what is anticoagulant?
prevents or retards the clotting of blood
what is the body's natural anticoagulant?
heparin
if your blood clumped with anti-A and anti-B sera, your ABO blood type would be?
AB, the least common type
what ABO blood groups can AB blood donate
only AB
BUT is the universal receipitant, can recieve blood from A, B, AB, and O
what ABO blood type is most common?
O
The universal donar, they can donate to any blood type
what is antigen antibody reaction?
donor blood cells coagulate and the patient will die
macrocytic hypochromic anemia caused by?
lack of Vit B12
microcytic hypochromic anemia caused by?
iron deficient diet
sickle cell anemia caused by?
genetic defect that causes hemoglobin to become sharp/spiky
lymphocytic leukemia (chronic) caused by?
a type of bone marrow cancer
eosinophilia is caused by?
tapeworm infestation
normal "least desirable" range for plasma cholesterol concentration
130-200
describe the realtionship between hight blood choloesterold levels and cardiovascular diseases.
Hight HDLs are degraded by the liver and eliminated
High LDLs favor cholesterold uptake and deposits in arteriosclerotix plaques which narrow vessels, reduce blood flow to more distal tissues, and increase the risk of thrombus. Narrowing vessels is one cause of hypertension.