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Mod 7: Genetics/biotech
Terms in this set (34)
= the genetic contents of an organism
What does bacterial genome consist of?
What makes Bacillus anthracis so toxic in comparison to Bacillus cereus?
The presence of plasmids - affects phenotype
= change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene
(can be spontaneous or induced)
What are the 4 primary types of mutations?
= mutation type that has no effect on the protein sequence
= mutation that results in an amino acid substitution
= mutation that substitutes a stop codon for an amino acid
= mutation in which insertion/ deletion results in a shift in the reading frame
= Physical/chemical agents that induces mutations
What was the purpose of the Ames Test?
to determine the mutagenic ability of a given compound/ substance
(his- mutants reverted back to his+ bacteria due to addition of mutagen)
= inherent ability of a cell to undergo transformation
= induced transformation of cells
= genes that are expressed all the time (unregulated)
= regulated genes that are turned on/off according to cell needs
= Transfer of DNA b/w cells of the same (or any) generation
Horizontal Gene Transfer
What are the 3 types of Horizontal gene transfer?
- Bacterial Conjugation
= Uptake of naked DNA from environment
(maybe from the lysis of other cells)
= The transfer of genetic info from one bacterial cell to another bacterial cell (with the help of a virus/ phage)
= Exchange of an F plasmid from one bacterial cell to another via a sex pilus; requires physical contact
(allows for rapid exchange of plasmids)
Which type of Horizontal Gene Transfer is due to a mistake in the assembly of a virus?
What are the the 2 types of Transduction?
How are they different?
- Generalized trans. = uses lytic phage, more random, carries pure DNA only
- Specialized trans. = uses lysogenic phage, higher specificity, carries combo of viral & bacterial DNA
= The transfer/packaging of ONLY bacterial DNA (pure DNA) into a virus; occurs via lytic phage
= Transfer/packaging of a small percentage of bacterial DNA with viral DNA; occurs via lyosgenic phage
What is the purpose of bacterial conjugation?
to allow for the rapid exchange of plasmids
What are the 2 forces that lead to mutations in the Influenzavirus genome?
- Antigenic drift
- Antigenic shift
How do Antigenic drifts generally cause mutations (changes in RNA sequences)?
by altering the antigenic properties of the HA & NA glycoproteins
Point mutations often lead to Antigenic ___________.
How do Antigenic shifts occur?
Occur when 2+ strains infect a single cell - thereby combining into a new virus that most immune systems arent able to recognize
= Use of living system, or components of living system, to make desired product
= Manipulation of an organism's DNA to alter genotype and phenotype
Biotech vs. Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering requires Biotech, but Biotech does NOT require GE
= Mechanism Used for adaptive immunity in Bacteria & Archaea
How is Cas (enzyme) used in Biotechnology?
What is its function?
Cas uses an RNA molecule to target a specific DNA cut site
Functions to break covalent bonds in DNA
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 8 Bacterial Genetics
chapter 7 continued micro
Microbio Ch.8 - Part 2
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