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LT1_Identify the chemical components and structure of DNA
Terms in this set (26)
3 thinks that DNA does
1. Make proteins
2. Direct the cell's activities
3. Give an organism it's traits
A type of biological molecule that stores genetic information; DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
3 parts of a Nucleotide
1. Phosphate group
2. 5-carbon sugar
3. Nitrogen-containing base
4 bases of a DNA nucleotide
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
Two strands of nucleotides formed into a two-strand spiral, with the sugar and phosphate groups on the outside, and the base pairs connecting the two stands on the inside of the helix.
A will always bind to T, and C will always bind to G. The rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA.
Anti-parallel directions [honors only]
The direction of the nucleotides in one strand run opposite to their discretion in the other strand.
A section of DNA that codes for a protein
instructs cells how to construct proteins; stored in DNA
The main building block of cells; controls cell activity; made of amino acids. Builds muscles (actin and myosin); carries oxygen in blood (hemoglobin); digests food (enzymes); carries messages (insulin, adrenaline, "hormones"); fights disease and illness (antibodies); hair, nails, claws, feathers, scales (keratin).
building blocks of proteins; there are 20
A double-membrane structure within Eukaryotic cells containing DNA and RNA.
holes in the nuclear envelope (membrane) that allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus (let the RNA out)
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
The "Central Dogma" of Biology
DNA makes RNA makes Protein (makes bacon)
3 ways RNA is different from DNA
1. is single stranded (one nucleotide chain) 2. contains Uracil instead of Thymine (U replaces T) 3. contains Ribose sugar instead of Deoxyribose
The codes that changed information embedded in DNA and RNA into ordered amino acids = proteins!!!
3 letter combination of bases that code for a specific amino acid; each codon encodes for 1 amino acid
AUG (codes for methionine); the codon that begins all RNA.
UAG, UAA, or UGA; the codon that ends all RNA; does not code for any amino acid...just stops the protein chain production.
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