22 terms

Chapter 9

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Bureaucracy
A set of complex hierarchical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duties. Bureaucracies can be governmental or private
Spoils System
The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected party
Patronage
Jobs, grants, or other special favors given as rewards to political allies for their support
Merit System
The system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations
Civil Service System
The system created by civil service laws by which many appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made
Pendleton Act
Created Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system; classified federal service by grades to which appointments are made based on the results of a competitive examination; made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party
Independent Regulatory Commissions
An agency created by congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy (Independent Commerce Commission; Department of Commerce and Labor; Federal Trade Commission)
Hatch Act
Law enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns; prevents federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate (Changes: Federal Employees Political Activities Act)
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act which allows federal employees to run for political office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections
Government Corporations
Businesses established by Congress that perform functions that could be provided by private businesses (i.e. USPS; UPS; Amtrak)
Independent Executive Agencies
Governmental units that clearly resemble a Cabinet department but have a narrower area of responsibility and are not part of any Cabinet Department (i. e. CIA; NASA; EPA)
Clientele Agencies
Executive cabinet interests from a specific group or minority
Implementation
Process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy
Iron Triangles
The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees
Issue Networks
The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
Interagency Councils
Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies
Regulations
Rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law
Administrative Discretion
The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions
Rule making
A quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative act
Administrative Adjudication
A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes
GAO (General Accountability Office)
Helps oversee the bureaucracy's financial affairs
CBO (Congressional Budget Office)
Keeps eye on Executive bureaucracy and the branch; conducts oversight studies