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Anth 319 Final Exam
Terms in this set (94)
"bad nutrition", leading cause of death worldwide, 1 billion people went to bed hungry in 2010, 30 percent of the world's population experience some form of malnutrition
Body isn't getting enough nutrients for proper growth and function - inadequate or imbalanced intake of nutrients
unable to fully utilize food they eat due to illness
How are undernutrition and illness linked?
linked cyclically because some illnesses negatively affect the nutritional absorption of food which makes you more likely to get sick in the future. ex) diarrhea and vomiting are examples of not being able to absorb full nutrients and your immune system is compromised making you more likely to get sick
consume too many calories; normally too much of the wrong things (too many calories and not enough nutrients_
Where is malnutrition most common?
Africa, Latin America, and South Asia experience lots of malnutrition in relation to where infectious diseases are prominent
How is chronic malnutrition measured?
height for age; low height compared to a reference population of the same age seen in children; in the uterus it can be the result of the mother also being malnourished before/during pregnancy, or another disease that prohibited proper nutrition intake
Acute malnutrition can be measured by...
underweight: weight for age
wasting: weight for height
mid upper arm circumference: tells us how much muscle and fat someone has
if their arm is smaller they don't have fat which means they don't have enough energy to lay down fat. If it is even smaller they don't have muscle because their body is breaking it down for energy
How is malnutrition the underlying problem for many diseases?
social/structural problems prevent the proper intake of food; ex: increasing price of foods with higher fat and calorie content, diet is bulky (low energy and vitamin content)
Potential Interventions of Malnutrition
cheap and effective
What are some causes of malnutrition?
war, poverty, government corruption, and globalization
PEM (protein-energy malnutrition) definition
a condition that exists when an individual shows deficiencies of protein and energy
not getting enough calories or protein in their diets; most common form of malnutrition
primary reason for PEM
inadequate food intake; low protein usually implies low calories because high protein food tend to contain more calories (because they contain more fats). Protein usually is found in more expensive foods such as meat or eggs
Secondary reason for PEM
result of disease; decreased t-cells, impaired cytokine response to infection, therefore there is an increased risk of opportunistic infections, reduced response to vaccines, and reactivation of viral infections
Types of PEM
Kwashiorkor: protein deficiency (getting enough energy but not enough protein); more rare and seen when weaning young toddlers when they switch from breast milk to regular food
Reactions to PEM
usually those children who have PEM retain a lot of water, causing them to think that these children are too fat and thus reduce their intake, which worsens their condition
Micronutrient Malnutrition Definition
lacking substances, such as a vitamin or mineral, that is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of a living organism
Micronutrient Malnutrition Facts
micronutrients are critical for regulation of growth, activity, and development and immune and reproductive function; 3 billion people (mostly children and women) are deficient in one with their micronutrients
Cause of Micronutrient Malnutrition
low diversity in diet
Consequences of Micronutrient Malnutrition
impair adaptive antibody response, cellular immune response and the innate immune response, increased risk for infections
very common problem in Asian and African countries, associated with maternal undernutrition, most commonly in girls and children because of gender inequality and parents eating before children; increases mortality and morbidity rates in the early months and years of life
How does low birth weigh effect society?
reduced education. reduced GDP (weakened workforce = reduced productivity = bad economy)
Example of Low Birth Rate
India = low variety available in markets, vegetarians, what parents believe kids should be sting over what is actually beneficial
Vitamin A Definition
retinol or any of several fat-soluble compounds with similar biological activity; the vitamin acts in numerous capacities, partially in the functioning of the retina, the growth and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response
Vitamin A facts
important immune function -> it protect skin and mucosa that keeps out infection; severe deficiency causes night blindness; poverty is a major factor in the vitamin A deficiency because of the cost of diets are usually lower for foods that do not contain vitamin A.
Vitamin A Interventions
Vitamina A injections; extremely effective, but not enough access to give it to everyone
Rx for Survival Clip
Vitamin A drops were given to children to prevent blindness, one does lasts for 4-6 months and it was a very cheap, they didn't need trained physicians to administer the dose
Iron Deficiency Definition
A relative or absolute deficiency or iron which may be due to chelation in the GI tract, loss due to acute or chronic hemorrhage or dietary insufficiency
Iron Deficiency Facts
most common micronutrient deficiency; 40-50 percent children in developing countries; associated with lower school attendance and test scores
Why is Iron important for the body?
important for transporting oxygen throughout the body and other important functions, important for immune response
Consequences of Low Iron levels
lowers immune response, severe anemia leads to high mortality, impairs child development, have less energy (decrease work capacity and pregnancy complications)
Signs of Iron Deficiency
white tongue, discolored and flaky fingernails
Example of Iron Deficiency
India = mothers in India were given supplements for Iron Deficiency from living in high altitudes
Iodine Deficiency Definition
a lack of sufficient iodine in the diet, which can lead to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Why is Iodine Important?
Iodine is important for brain development and metabolism; needed for production of thyroid hormone; comes from sea fish or iodized salt
Iodine Deficiency Facts
Causes brain damage, mental retardation, swelling of the thyroid gland, cretinism, lower IQ, and stillbirths and miscarriages
Which is more deadly wasting or stunting?
Chronic Disease Definition
non-communicable disease that have long lasting health effects. Degenerative diseases or result of man-made context
Chronic Disease Facts
treatments for chronic diseases are often expensive and require long term, systematic structured treatment; most likely occur in places where infectious disease are less prominent; responsible for 60 percent of deaths worldwide
Lifestyle Factors Definition
potential risk factors for chronic disease that include poor food, exercise choices
Lifestyle Factors Facts
emphasis is on the individual for the cause of illness for the cause of the illness, risk factor of chronic disease, influenced by structural violence: not enough free time to exercise or unavailability of healthy food
Potential Lifestyle Factors include
Mass consumption: America's consumption culture, we consume more of everything, especially more food
Lack of Exercise: children don't play outside as much, transportation, jobs aren't physically demanding
Second-hand smoke and air pollution
Marketing of junk food to children
Dual Burden Definition
An area that suffers from two opposing problems at the same time such as high rates of chronic and infectious disease or high rates of malnutrition and overnutrition
Dual Burden Examples
Common in developing countries, China serves as an example of this
Nutrition Transition Definition
Shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and epidemiological changes
Example of Demographic Transition
from prevalent infectious disease to a pattern of prevalent chronic and degenerative diseases
from traditional agricultural work to processed foods
Underlying causes of these shifts
environmental: changes in food consumption, less physical activity
economic: higher availability of processed foods, changes in types of jobs and physical labor, connection between poverty and obesity (US)
cultural: social status, norms and values
political-macroeconomic: globalization and marketing, "coca-colonization" and trade
Food Desserts Definition
parts of the country void of fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods, usually found in impoverished areas
Food Dessert Facts
Areas where healthy foods aren't readily available, people only eat food from convenience store/fast food.
Happens when businesses and groceries stores are not close, lack of choices
a high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass, or BMI of 30 or higher
Examples of Obesity
household chores have decrease in the last twenty years...we take transportation everywhere instead of walking.
Diabetes (Type II) Definition
metabolic disorder caused by high blood glucose and insulin resistance. Impairs body's ability to turn glucose into usable energy
refers to the fact that Indians have a high rate of diabetes than in the UK, although Inidians were generally 10 years younger, 9-15 pounds lighter, have lower BMI
age, urbanization, ethnicity, family history, being overweight or obese, lack of physical activity, high-fat diets, low birth weight
a hormone produced that is responsible for clearing glucose from the bloodstream by having cells take up glucose
Thrifty Genotype Hypothesis
an evolutionary hypothesis that ascribes survival advantages to insulin resistance seen during a history of caloric deprivation with a high caloric intake now, which might prove diabetogenic in conditions of caloric adequacy or affluence
Thrifty Genotype Cont.
populations that have had extreme famine in the past and now have high calorie diets are now prone to diabetes; these genes allow for more efficient food utilization and storage in times of plenty; those with the thrifty genotype have an increased survival rate in times of famine; our genes cannot adapt as quickly as our environment which is why these populations are more prone to diabetes
Example of Thrifty Genotype
Pima: They live in American Southwest, desert wasn't good for food, now have government assistance and glucose has spiked, and now because of the great change they are at higher risks of diabetes
Hypothesis: an "anaemic" body type that results from malnutrition during fetal and early postnatal life, leading to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction as adults
Thrifty Phenotype Facts
fetus grows slowly due to nutritional insufficiency, slow growth -> smaller size, reduced muscle mass and altered metabolism-higher fat to lean muscle mass ratio compared to regular infants
Difference in health status amount distinct segments of the population (gender, race/ethnicty, education/income, disability or geography)
Examples of health status used to measure health disparties
life expectancy, causes of morbidity and mortality, barriers in access to health care, quality of health care
the most common mood disorder; characterized by low mood, fatigue, thoughts of death, sadness, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest in pleasurable activities
physical or psychological challenge that threatens to disturb homeostasis; chronic stress can increase disease risk
anticipation of an impending challenge, chronic activation of stress response
body reacts with "fight or flight" response
Movement from one place to another. This can be within or across borer, voluntary, regular or irregular, temporary, seasonal
Causes of Migration
jobs, social exclusion, conflicts, poverty or hunger, political reasons, globalization
process by which immigrants adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of another culture
Acculturation Mental Health Risk Factors
Discrimination, Neighborhood effects, Exposure to violence, economic pressure, loss of cultural buffering
Consequences of Acculturation to Mental Health
higher levels of anxiety and depression
focus of material achievement
loss of extended family support
disruption of family relations
When illegal immigrants come in to the US their health actually decreases, because of the stress they have from being undocumented and for trying to adapt to american culture
the consequences of prolonged activation of the stress response, which is negative to ones health
Social Determinants of Health
circumstances in which people are born, grow up and age and the systems in place to deal with illness among society (WANDED); Require structural interventions
Work Environment, Access to health care, neighborhood impact, daily living conditions, education, discrimination
Example of Social Determinants of Health
Inner city Atlanta: work hours, access to places to exercise, unsafe
hormone that is released in response to stress, associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and weight gain
What is the global pattern of infant and childhood mortality? Where are the majority of deaths occurring? Why are these children dying?
Sub-Saharan Africa, SE Asia, South America. Children are dying from malnutrition and communicable diseases and lack of healthcare. They are also dying from structural violence. Women do not get the proper maternal care and nutrients they need while pregnant in turn effecting their children. Children are doomed from their time in they are conceived because of their mothers health
What is the global pattern of malnutrition? What are the underlying causes of malnutrition? How can these be addressed? What intervention strategies would you use?
Mostly in Africa, SE Asia, and South America. They lack accessibility to food or the food costs too much, poor diet, diet is not diverse enough. Interventions could be farming, community-supported gardens, oral supplements or injections which don't require a highly specialized doctor
What are the consequences of vitamin A deficiency? What role does vitamin A play in childhood mortality?
This deficiency leads to night blindness and can continue until you are completely blond, 90 percent of these cases are fatal, this deficiency contributed to 1 million children's deaths due to measles.
Why is it most important to address malnutrition during childhood? How does childhood malnutrition affect and relate to overall health in a country?
malnutrition during childhood can lead to poor health later on, reduce school and education, contributing to lack of status, ability, and getting jobs; this leads to reduced productivity and economic growth as an entire country. malnutrition is multigenerational
What is the relationship between nutrition and the immune system?
direct relationship -> nutrition supports the immune system. if you do not receive the nutrients you need your body will not function and grow properly lowering your immune system and allowing yourself to become more susceptible to diseases.
What is a dual burden of disease? Where is this occurring? Why? Use examples from the readings.
Dual burden is a country that suffers from both chronic and infectious diseases. Africa is a good example because some people are wealthy and obese while others are poor and suffer from infectious disease
What factors does Popkin identify as the underlying causes of increasing rates of obesity?
Sedentary Lifestyle, Large portion sizes, less consumption of homemade meals, sugary drinks, eating more snacks
How do these compare across countries? (USA, Mexico, India, China)
Mexico - sweetened beverages are a huge problems because they do not have clean tap water, so they drink a lot of soda
China - changes in family structure, eating at fast food restaurants, home cooked meals contain more oil and meats than they used to. Children are spoiled in China due to the 1 child rule
USA - sedentary lifestyle
India - rapid change (sedentary)
What are some of the main contributing factors to increasing levels of obesity in the US and globally? Which factors do you think are most important: increased portion size, types of foods available, decreased activity, sweetened beverages, etc.? What could we do about them?
Depends on the exact location. In different countries different factors carrying different weights. To change this would be planting gardens.
What is diabetes and why is it such a problem? Where is the major burden of diabetes? How may diabetes risk be transmitted across generations? What implications does this have for global health?
diabetes is when the body has insulin resistance. Both developing and industrialized countries have this problem, but the most deaths from diabetes occur in low to middle-income countries. It can be transmitted through generations from a malnourished mother to her infant while pregnant through the thrifty phenotype. diabetes is a "gateway" disease and it is also becoming increasingly prevalent.
What is the global pattern and importance of mental health disorders? Why do we see these patterns? what is the relationship between political or natural disasters and mental health, and why is this important?
The more depressed people in developed countries due to the huge socioeconomic inequality and in developing countries they have other things to worry about. Health disparities can lead to different mental health disorders and result in poor quality of life.
What is the relationship between stress and health? How does stress "get under the skin" to create health disparities?
Stress weakens your immune system. Stress disturbs homeostasis. Constantly being exposed to stress can cause weight gain and insulin resistance.
What are social determinants of health and why is it important to address them when considering any health intervention? How do social determinants influence health in the US or elsewhere
they are often the causes behind many health problems and it is why they should be addressed when looking at interventions.
argues the nutrition is a bigger problem that needs to be solved than vaccinations.
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