AP World History - Period 1
AP World History Period 1
Terms in this set (44)
During what famous age/period did the early human migrations take place?
Where did the early migrations begin?
Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
What do anthropologists believe about the social structures of early hunter-forager bands?
What "technologies" did early humans develop and how did they use these technologies?
Use of fire and tools
Why did early humans develop different tools in different regions of the world?
To adapt to different environments
What do we know about the economic structures of early hunter-forager bands?
Small kinship groups that exchanged people, ideas, and goods
What major historical turning point occurred about 10,000 years ago?
Neolithic Revolution, the beginnings of agriculture
How did the switch to agriculture impact the environment? Why?
Environmental diversity lessened
How did social structures change with the switch to agriculture?
Elite groups accumulated wealth, creating hierarchical social structures; promotes patriarchal social organization
What is pastoralism and where did it first emerge?
Pastoralism: domestication and herding of animals
First emerged in parts of Africa and Eurasia
What are some defining characteristics of the pastoralist way of life?
Social stratified, rarely accumulated large amounts of wealth, and important conduits for technological change
How did pastoralists affect people living in settled agricultural communities?
Introduced new technology to agricultural communities by spreading it around
What are the seven major regions associated with the emergence of agriculture?
2. Nile River/Sub-Saharan Africa
3. Indus River Valley
4. Yellow River Valley
5. Papua New Guinea
7. Andes Mountains
Why did people in agricultural communities have to work cooperatively with one another?
To clear land and create water control systems
How was environmental diversity impacted by the emergence of agriculture?
Diversity decreased greatly
How did the emergence of pastoralism affect the environment?
Pastoralists over-grazed in fragile grasslands, causing erosion
How did the emergence of pastoralism and agriculture affect the food supply?
Led to more reliable and abundant food supplies
What happened to early human populations as a result of pastoralism and agriculture? Explain.
Populations increased due to increased food supply
How did agriculture affect human labor systems before 600 BCE?
Surplus food led to specialization of labor
How did specialization of labor impact technology before 600 BCE?
Led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation
What important technological innovations emerged as a result of the specialization of labor?
Pottery, plows, woven textiles, metallurgy, wheels, and wheeled vehicles
What are some important characteristics of the elite groups that emerged with the switch pastoralism and agriculture?
Elite groups accumulated wealth, creating more hierarchical social structures and promoting patriarchal forms of social organization
How long ago did the first r societies develop that laid the foundations for civilization?
~5000 years ago
What does the term 'civilization' used to designate?
Large societies with cities and powerful states
What important features do all civilizations share?
All produced agricultural surpluses leading to the promotion of specialization of labor
Generated complex institutions
In regards to labor systems, what do agricultural surpluses permit?
Specialization of labor
Name the "core & foundational civilizations" where agriculture flourished.
4. Shang in the Yellow River Valley
What are the defining characteristics of a "state"?
Mobilized surplus labor and resources over a large area
Led by leader with either divine or military power
What are some typical defining characteristics of the leaders of early states?
Leader believed to be divine or have divine support and/or backed by military
What are the Hittites known for?
Access to iron
What does it mean to be a "favorably situated" state?
Greater access to resources
Experienced growing populations
Produced more surplus foods
What was a common trend in early states with food surplus and growing populations?
The were able to undertake territorial expansion and conquer surrounding states
Which 3 regions experienced the first empire building?
2. Nile Valley
What role did pastoralists play in transforming civilizations? Provide some examples.
Transformed warfare through developing and disseminating new weapons and modes of transporation
What role did culture play in unifying states?
Through laws, language, literature, religion, myth, and monumental art
What are some examples of monumental architecture and urban planning in early civilizations?
Ziggurats, pyramids, temples, defensive walls, streets, and sewage systems
Who promoted the arts and artisanship in early civilizations?
Religious and political elites
Systems of record keeping arose _____________ in all early civilizations. Some examples of these are:
Independently (Ex. cuneiform, hieroglyphs, pictographs, alphabets, and Quipu)
What is an example of an early legal code?
Code of Hammurabi
What religious beliefs developed during the period of early/core civilizations?
Vedic religion (Hinduism), Hebrew monotheism (Judaism), and Zoroastrianism (from Persia)
How did trade change during this time period?
Trade expanded from local to regional and transregional
List several examples of civilizations that exchanged goods, ideas and technology during the period of early civilizations?
Between Egypt and Nubia
Between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley
What changed in the realm of social systems during the period of early civilizations?
Social and gender hierarchies intensified
What are some examples of literature from the period of early civilizations?
Epic of Gilgamesh, Rig Veda, and the Book of the Dead