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Screening Tests &Interpretation
Terms in this set (31)
optimize overall health
of specific diseases
Levels of dz prevention ?
-Dfn : Implemented
there is evidence of dz or injury .
-Intent : Risk Reduction
* Dfn& Intent
-Dfn : Implemented
dz has begun but
it's symptomatic .
1)Reduce consequences of dz .
2)Identification of dz in its early stages .
3)Intervening w/ a tx which is more effective Bcz it's being applied earlier .
Can't reduce dz incidence
Testing of apparently healthy populations to identify previously undiagnosed/Unrecognized dz's .
◾To ensure early detection of a dz among individuals, so that prompt tx may be instituted >
◾ To protect the community from dz that the person being screened has >
◾ For entry into certain forms of occupations
Comprehensive dz control activity based on the
identification and tx
of persons w/ either unrecognized dz or unrecognized risk factors for dz
The 2 approaches of screening :
◾Population-Level screening :National level policy decision to offer
g* to a whole sub-group of a population .
g*) :Occurs at the individual patient-physician level بين المريض والدكتور
is defined as ?
Special clinical efforts to recognize dz among persons who consult a health professional.
Effective Screening :
Involves both diagnostic
and treatment components.
The period b/w when early detection by screening is possible and when the clinical dx would normally have occurred , this definition best describes ?
The amount of time by which dx is advanced or made earlier is called ?
Lead time is _____________ condition for effective screening .
A. Necessary but not sufficient
B.Necessary and sufficient
C.Neither necessary nor sufficient
D.Sufficient but not necessary
yield of a screening test , depends on ?
-Sensitivity of a test
-Prevalence of dz
-Availability of medical care
The screening test must be
, this means ___?
The amount of
(in terms of expenses and time) should result in reasonable amount of
in terms of improved health & satisfaction.
Principles of screening :
1)Choice of dz for which to screen
2)Nature of screening test to be used
3)Availability of tx
4)Relative costs of screening
Examples of screening tests
1)Pap smear > Cervical cancer
2)Assessment of Bp and Ch levels > development of CVDs
Logic of screening :
Sensitivity of a test :
freq of +ve test results in
pts w/ a particular dz
Formula used to calculate test sensitivity :
Freq of -ve test results in
pts w/o the dz
the % of pts w/ a +ve test, who really have the dz .
The % of pts w/ a -ve test, who really don't have the dz
Prevalence of dz
Proportion of persons w/ dz in the pop
((y3ni we take into account kul el dz'ed pts yli home TP , FN / all pop))
(TP + FN) /(TP+FN+FP+TN)
(TP + TN)/(TP + TN+ FP + FN)
Accuracy vs. Precision
: how close experimental value is to accepted(true) value;
: how closely measured values agree with each other
Ideal test properties :
High Validity , High Precision
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