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Commercial Drone License Study Guide
Terms in this set (71)
Federal Aviation Administration
Small Unmanned Aircraft System
criteria for small unmanned aircraft
-Weighs less than 55 pounds.
-Operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft
Crafts exclusions to 14 CFR part 10
-Moored Balloons or unmanned free balloons
-Operations conducted outside of US
-Public Aircraft Operations
-Air Carrier operations
Weight range for a sUAS to be operated under 14 CFR part 107
0.55 lbs to 55 lbs.
Foreign Aircraft Permit Requirements
-Registered in a foreign country
-Owned, controlled, or operated by someone who is not a US citizen or permanent resident
Requirements for sUAS Identification Label
-Unique number identifier, usually is FAA issued registration number or the serial number.
-Legible and durable display, by engraving, permanent marker, or self-adhesive label.
-Visible or accessible, number may be enclosed in a compartment only if you can access without tools.
sUAS Crewmember roles
-Remote Pilot in Command
-Person Manipulating the controls
Can a sUas be operated by a single individual without any crew members?
Yes, they are the identified Remote Pilot in command and must have a current remote pilot certificate
Remotes Pilot in Command (Remote PIC)
-Holds a current remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating.
-Final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the sUAS.
Person Manipulating the Controls
-Individual controlling the sUAS under direct suprvision of the remote PIC
A person acting as a flight crew member to help see and avoid air traffic or other objects in the sky, overhead, or on the ground
Responsibilities of the Remote PIC
-Be Designated before each flight
-Ensure that the operation
--Poses no undue hazard to people, aircraft, or property in the event of a loss of control of the aircraft for any reason
-Operate the small unmanned aircraft to ensure compliance with all applicable provisions
Circumstances when non-certificated person may operate the sUAS under Part 107
-He or she is directly supervised by the Remote PIC
-The Remote PIC has the ability to immediately take direct control of the sUAS
Methods for Remote PIC to take over flight controls
-Stand close enough to physically take over the control station
-Use a "buddy box" system with two control stations:
--One for the person manipulating the flight controls
--One that allows the Remote PIC to immediately override the other control station
-Use a pre-programmed safe-mode system with "home" or "hover" functions
Role of Visual Observer
-alert the rest of the crew about potential hazards during sUAS operations
-Use is optional
Remote PIC must ensure VOs are:
-Are positioned in a location where they are able to see the sUAS continuously and sufficiently to maintain visual line of sight
-Possess a means to effectively communicate the sUAS position and the position of other aircraft to the Remote PIC and person manipulating the controls
Information Acquired by Remote PIC prior to flight
-Performance capabilities of the sUAS
-Weather conditions, surrounding airspace
-Air Traffic Control (ATC) requirements.
Crew Resource Management
the effective use of all available resources—human, hardware, and information—prior to and during flight to ensure a successful outcome of the operation
-Delegate operational tasks and manage crewmembers.
-Recognize and address hazardous attitudes
-Establish effective team communication procedures
Tasks/ Responsibilities of Remote PIC
-Assesses the operating environment (airspace, surrounding terrain, weather, hazards, etc.)
-Determines the appropriate number of crewmembers that are needed to safely conduct a given operation.
-Ensure sufficient crew support so that no one on the team becomes over-tasked, which increases the possibility of an incident or accident.
-Informs participants of delegated tasks and sets expectations
-Manages and supervises the crew to ensure that everyone completes their assigned task
5 hazardous attitudes
The person does not like or may resent anyone telling him or her what to do. The person may regard rules, regulations, and procedures as silly or unnecessary.
"Don't tell me what to do."
The person frequently feels the need to do something, anything, immediately. He or she does not stop to think about the best alternative and does the first thing that comes to mind.
"Do it quickly"
The person falsely believes that accidents happen to others, but never to him or her. The person knows accidents can happen and that anyone can be affected. However, the person never really feels or believes that he or she will be personally involved. Such people are more likely than others to take chances and increase risk.
"It won't happen to me"
The person tries to prove that he or she is better than anyone else. The person takes risks to impress others
"I can do it, I will show them"
The person does not believe his or her actions make a difference in what happens. The person attributes outcomes to good or bad luck. He or she leaves the action to others, for better or worse. Sometimes, the person even goes along with unreasonable requests just to be a "nice guy."
"What's the use"
FAA Requirements of Remote PIC and crew members
1. Scan the airspace in the operational area for any potential collision hazard;
2. Maintain awareness of the position of the sUAS through direct visual observation.
-Perform as prescribed by manufacturer.
-If not available from manufacturer:
--Document any repair, modification, overhaul, or replacement of a system component resulting from normal flight operations
--Record the time-in-service for that component at the time of the maintenance procedure
--Assess these records over time to establish a reliable maintenance schedule for the sUAS and its components
Before beginning any sUAS flight operation:
-Assess the operating environment
-Inform any supporting crewmembers about the operation and their roles
Inspect the sUAS to ensure that it is in a condition for safe operation
-Maintain documents required in the event of an on-site FAA inspection
-Local weather conditions
-Local airspace and any flight restrictions
-The location of persons and property on the surface
-Other ground hazards
Info for the Crew
-Roles and responsibilities of each person involved in the operation
Records for sUAS should include
-Small unmanned aircraft itself
-Launch and recovery equipment
-Data link equipment
-Any other components required to safely operate the sUAS
On-site Required Documentation
Any necessary waiver or exemption
Other documentation related to the operation
Factors for Weight Reduction
High density altitude conditions
High air temperatures
Runway/launch area length
Presence of obstacles
Most Common Performance Deficiencies
Reduced rate of climb
Lower maximum altitude
Permitted to Carry Hazardous Materials?
considered hazardous materials. One is permitted but a spare is not.
Weather condition considerations
Atmospheric pressure and stability
Wind and currents
Uneven surface heating
Visibility and cloud clearance
Geographic condition considerations
Plowed ground, rocks, sand, and barren land give off a large amount of heat and are likely to result in updrafts
Water, trees, and other areas of vegetation tend to absorb and retain heat and are likely to result in downdrafts
permitted to fly at night
Unmanned aircraft must remain in VLOS of crewmembers
Crewmember visibility limitations (clouds, distance)
Minimum visibility, as observed from the location of the control station, must be no less than 3 statute miles
Minimum distance from clouds must be no less than 500 feet below a cloud and 2000 feet horizontally from the cloud
Must be able to see at all times. Must be unassisted, no binoculars
operation limitations (speed, altitude, structures)
Speed limit: 87 knots/ 100 mph
Altitude limit: 400 ft above ground level
Strcuture: within a 400ft radius of a structure/ higher than 400 ft above a structure
Airspace class where sUAS are permitted
B,C,D, E require authorization from Air Traffic control
Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs)
Info on Temporary flight restrictions.
Remote PIC must check before flight
14 CFR part 99.7 provisions
14 CFR part 91.137 Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas
14 CFR part 91.138 Temporary flight restrictions in national disaster areas in the State of Hawaii
14 CFR part 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules
14 CFR part 91.141 Flight restrictions in the proximity of the Presidential and other parties
14 CFR part 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations
14 CFR part 91.144 Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions
14 CFR part 91.145 Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events
Radio Frequency Considerations
Line of sight/obstructions
Most common frequencies
2.4GHz and 5.8GHz
Regulated by Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Operation above people
NOT permitted unless:
Directly involved in the operation
Within a safe cover, such as inside a stationary vehicle or a protective structure that would protect a person from harm if the small unmanned aircraft were to crash into that structure
operating form a vehicle
permitted, land or sea, not permitted form a flying vehicle
Operator Consumption Theshold
Alcoholic beverage- 8 hours
Blood AC of .04% or higher
Drugs that affect persons mental or physical capbilities
Certificate of Waiver
Allows certain provisions for sUAS operation to deviate
107.25 -Operation from a moving vehicle or aircraft. However, no waiver of this provision will be issued to allow the carriage of property of another by aircraft for compensation or hire
107.29 -Daylight operation
107.31-Visual line of sight aircraft operation. However, no waiver of this provision will be issued to allow the carriage of property of another by aircraft for compensation or hire
107.33- Visual observer
107.35- Operation of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems
107.37(a)-Yielding the right of way
§ 107.39 Operation over people
§ 107.41 Operation in certain airspace
§ 107.51 Operating limitations for small unmanned aircraft
transmits command instructions to the aircraft
transmits status of the aircraft and provides situational awareness to Remote PIC
-an interruption or loss of the control link between the control station and the unmanned aircraft, preventing control of the aircraft
-As a result, the unmanned aircraft performs pre-set lost link procedures.
Lost link reactions
Remains airborne in a predictable or planned maneuver, allowing time to re-establish the communication link
Autolands, if available, after a predetermined length of time or terminates the flight when the power source is depleted
Contingency planning inclusions
-Alternate landing/ recovery sight
the intentional and deliberate process of performing controlled flight to the ground. Flight termination may be part of lost link procedures, or it may be a contingency that you elect to use if further flight of the aircraft cannot be safely achieved, or if other potential hazards exist that require immediate discontinuation of flight.
Flight Termination Points (FTPs)
-Be located within power-off glide distance of the aircraft during all phases of flight
-Be based on the assumption of an unrecoverable system failure
-Take into consideration altitude, winds, and other factors
-begins as a lost link—an interruption or loss of the control link prevents control of the aircraft. As a result, the unmanned aircraft is not operating in a predicable or planned manner.
-is an emergency situation
lithium metal batteries generate sufficient heat to cause adjacent cells to go into thermal runaway. As a result, the lithium metal cell releases an explosive combination of a flammable electrolyte and molten lithium metal, accompanied by a large pressure pulse.
battery storage recs
Prevent short circuits by placing each individual battery in the original retail packaging, a separate plastic bag, or a protective pouch or by insulating exposed terminals with tape
Do not allow spare batteries to come in contact with metal objects, such as coins, keys, or jewelry
Take steps to prevent objects from crushing, puncturing, or applying pressure on the battery
Accident Reports thresholds
Serious injury to any person or any loss of consciousness
Damage to any property, other than the small unmanned aircraft, if the cost is greater than $500 to repair or replace the property (whichever is lower)
14 CFR part 107 serious injury qualification
Level 3: Requires hospitalization but injury is reversible
Laceration(s) to the skin that requires suturing
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FAA 107 Commercial Drone Pilot Exam Material
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