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30 terms

Chemistry Vocab

STUDY
PLAY
Physical Properties
color, odor, melting point, conductivity, solublity, hardness, boiling point, density, malleability => DON'T CHANGE the sample
Chemical Properties
flammability, reactivity => DO CHANGE the sample
Solids
have definity shape and volume, ordered, low energy (particles aren't moving around much)
liquids
have definite volume but not shape, less ordered, more energy, if something is aqueous (aq) it is dissolved in water
gases
no definite shape or volume, total disorder, highest energy (lots of particle movement)
Elements
can't be separated, made of 1 kind of atom (like O2)
Compounds
can be separated chemically, made of 2+ kinds of atoms (like H20)
Mixtures
can be separated PHYSICALLY by evaporating, sifting, magnetism, filtering, etc.
Nucleus of an atom
made of protons (+) and neutrons (ø), most of atom's mass is here, # of protons determines what each element is
Cation
a POSTIVE ion, has lost electrons, smaller radius
Anion
a NEGATIVE ion, has gained electrons, larger radius
isotopes
less common forms of an element, have SAME # of protons but DIFFERENT # of neutrons, have a different mass
Electronegativity
ATTRACTION for electrons
ionization
energy required to PULL AN ELECTRON AWAY from an atom
Metals
LOW electronegativity and ionization, good conductors, shiny and malleable
transition metals
produce colors when reacted
nonmetals
HIGH electronegativity and ionization energy, poor conductors, brittle and dull
matalloids
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te => on "steps" of periodic table
Hydrogen bonds
only with FON => florine, oxygen, nitrogen
Polar Bonds
DIFFERENT ELEMENTS
Nonpolar Bonds
SAME ELEMENTS
Coordinate Covalent Bond
one atom donates BOTH electrons in a bond (ex. CO)
High melting/boiling point
strong attractive forces between atoms/molecules
Low melting/boiling point
weak attractive forces between atoms/molecules
Covalent Bond
between two nonmetals, electrons are shared
Ionic Bond
between metal and nonmetal, nonmetal "steals" electrons from the metal
Bonded Atoms have
less potential energy than the elements alone
Metallic Bonds
the nucleus is surrounded by a "sea" of electrons
diatomic molecules
a molecule that MUST contain two identical atoms when alone: O₂H₂N₂F₂Cl₂Br₂I₂
Rutherford
gold foil experiment: atoms are mostly empty space, positive in the middle, negative aroung the outside