color, odor, melting point, conductivity, solublity, hardness, boiling point, density, malleability => DON'T CHANGE the sample
flammability, reactivity => DO CHANGE the sample
have definity shape and volume, ordered, low energy (particles aren't moving around much)
have definite volume but not shape, less ordered, more energy, if something is aqueous (aq) it is dissolved in water
no definite shape or volume, total disorder, highest energy (lots of particle movement)
can't be separated, made of 1 kind of atom (like O2)
can be separated chemically, made of 2+ kinds of atoms (like H20)
can be separated PHYSICALLY by evaporating, sifting, magnetism, filtering, etc.
Nucleus of an atom
made of protons (+) and neutrons (ø), most of atom's mass is here, # of protons determines what each element is
a POSTIVE ion, has lost electrons, smaller radius
a NEGATIVE ion, has gained electrons, larger radius
less common forms of an element, have SAME # of protons but DIFFERENT # of neutrons, have a different mass
ATTRACTION for electrons
energy required to PULL AN ELECTRON AWAY from an atom
LOW electronegativity and ionization, good conductors, shiny and malleable
produce colors when reacted
HIGH electronegativity and ionization energy, poor conductors, brittle and dull
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te => on "steps" of periodic table
only with FON => florine, oxygen, nitrogen
Coordinate Covalent Bond
one atom donates BOTH electrons in a bond (ex. CO)
High melting/boiling point
strong attractive forces between atoms/molecules
Low melting/boiling point
weak attractive forces between atoms/molecules
between two nonmetals, electrons are shared
between metal and nonmetal, nonmetal "steals" electrons from the metal
Bonded Atoms have
less potential energy than the elements alone
the nucleus is surrounded by a "sea" of electrons
a molecule that MUST contain two identical atoms when alone: O₂H₂N₂F₂Cl₂Br₂I₂
gold foil experiment: atoms are mostly empty space, positive in the middle, negative aroung the outside
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