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A) are always the same shape
B) are single-membrane structures involved in the breakdown of ATP
C) contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
D) synthesize proteins for use outside the cell
The main component of the cytosol is ________.
Which of these is not a function of the plasma membrane?
A) It prevents potassium ions from leaking out and sodium ions from crossing into the cell.
B) It acts as a site of cell-to-cell interaction and recognition.
C) It encloses the cell contents in such a way that water I the body is divided into separate compartments.
D) It is selectively permeable but permits water and gases to cross.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
A) breakdown of stored glycogen to form free glucose
B) protein synthesis in conjunction with ribosomes
C) lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis
D) steroid-based hormone synthesis
Which vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?
C) intracellular vesicular trafficking
Crenation (shrinking) is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in ________.
A) a hypotonic solution
B) an isotonic solution
C) blood plasma
D) a hypertonic solution
Caveolae are closely associated with all of the following except ________.
A) receptors for hormones
B) enzymes involved in cell regulation
C) lipid rafts
D) enzymes involved in cell metabolism
Which of the following is NOT a function of lysosomes?
A) forming acid hydrolases which are necessary to help form cell membranes
B) degrading worn-out or nonfunctional organelles
C) breaking down bone to release calcium ions into the blood
D) digesting particles taken in by endocytosis
If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT, then what would be the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA?
Which of the following statements is correct regarding net diffusion?
A) The rate is independent of temperature.
B) Molecular weight of a substance does not affect the rate.
C) The lower the temperature, the faster the rate.
D) The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate.
Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?
A) a single-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
B) a phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
C) a membrane composed of tiny shelves or cristae
D) a double layer of protein enclosing the plasma
The functions of centrioles include ________.
A) organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
B) producing ATP
C) providing a whiplike beating motion to move substances along cell surfaces
D) serving as the site for ribosomal RNA synthesis
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the membrane potential?
A) The resting membrane potential is maintained by solely by passive transport processes.
B) In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential.
C) The resting membrane potential is determined mainly by the concentration gradients and differential permeability of the plasma membrane to K+ and Na+ions.
D) The resting membrane potential occurs due to active transport of ions across the membrane due to the sodium-potassium pump.
A) is the formation of sex cells
B) is division of the nucleus
C) is always a part of the cell cycle
D) creates diversity in genetic potential
In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in ________.
A) the cytoplasm
B) both smooth and rough ER
C) the rough ER
D) the smooth ER
A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.
A) swell and burst
C) neither shrink nor swell
D) swell initially, then shrink as equilibrium is reached
Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure?
A) Phospholipids consist of a polar head and a nonpolar tail made of three fatty acid chains.
B) The lipid bilayer is a solid at body temperature, thus protecting the cell.
C) All proteins associated with the cell membrane are contained in a fluid layer on the outside of the cell.
D) Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.
Which of the following is not a factor that binds cells together?
A) wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells
B) special membrane junctions
C) glycoproteins in the glycocalyx
D) glycolipids in the glycocalyx
Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as "second messengers"?
A) Second messengers act through receptors called K-proteins.
B) Second messengers usually inactivate protein kinase enzymes.
C) Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.
D) Second messengers usually act to remove nitric oxide (NO) from the cell.
Which of the following is NOT a role of cell adhesion molecules:
A) mechanical sensors
B) initiators of cell-to-cell signaling for muscle contraction
C) transmitters of intracellular signals that direct cell migration, proliferation, and specialization
D) anchor cells to molecules in the extracellular space and to each other
How might cell shape affect cell function?
What is the function of osteocytes?
What is the max stroke volume
What is the cellular composition of blood?
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