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to assert or declare without proof


to find fault with, criticize or condemn


threadlike structures within the nucleus of a cell that transmit genetic information


group of identical matching cells that come from a single common cell

Control Group

research subjects who receive no treatment

Double Blind Test

a research design in which neither the experimenter nor the patient knows who is getting the research treatment


the administration of a lethal agent by another person to a patient for the purpose of relieving intolerable and incurable suffering


the act of forcing out

Gene Markers

list of genes that are responsible for disease

Gene Therapy

the replacement of a defective or malfunctioning gene by splicing or connecting onto the DNA of body cells to control production of a particular substance


remove organs or embryos

Human Genome

the complete set of genes within the 23 pairs of human chromosomes

Human Genome Project

a research program funded by the federal government to map and sequence the total number of genes within the 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes

Institutional Review Board

a hospital or university board of members who oversee any human research in that facility

National Organ Transplant Law

federal law that forbids the sale of organs in interstate commerce

Nontherapeutic Research

research conducted that will not directly benefit the research subject


after death


the act of taking away or recalling, such as taking away a license to practice medicine

Social Utility

giving organs to patients who will benefit the most

Stem Cells

master cells in the body that can generate specialized cells

Therapeutic Research

a form of medical research that might directly benefit the research subject

United Network for Organ Sharing

the legal entity in the United States responsible for allocating organs for transplantation


the branch of philosophy relating to morals and moral principles

Applied Ethics

ethics that relates to health care professions


issues discussed in the context of advanced medical technology are called...

Illegal Acts

usually unethical

Code of Hammurabi

the earliest code of ethics governing the conduct of those practicing medicine


referred to as the father of medicine and wrote a statement of principles for his medical students to follow

American Medical Association

they issue a warning or censure to a physician when the physician is accused of unethical behavior or conduct

Governmental Agency

an allegation of a criminal act by a physician requires that the act be reported to the state licensing board or...

Nuremberg Code

the concern for the human subject in medical experimentation is the result of the...

Medical Assistant

the AAMA has developed a code of ethics for the...


the National Organ Transplant Law of 1984 forbids the sale of...


kidney transplants are fully funded by...

Conflict of Interest

placing the researcher's interests above the patient's interests is considered...

Medical Etiquette

standards of professional behavior that physicians use for conduct with other physicians


this committee of a hospital serves in an advisory capacity to patients, families and staff to decide who gets donated organs, review difficult ethical issues and determine when care will be discontinued

Human Research

an institutional review board in a hospital or university receiving federal research funds oversees what type of research in the facility


a decision model for helping resolve these types of issues includes asking what do we know, who is involved and where and when does the situation occur

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