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Brahe's assistant. Discovered that that the universe WAS heliocentric but that the planets traveled in ellipses - German
invents the telescope and publishes a book based on his observations and is arrested by the church, he is forced to "take back" his observations - Italian
idea that we cannot always rely on our senses we can only trust our mind, emphasis on reason. "I think therefor I am" - French
laws of gravity, thinks the universe is orderly and structured. "God wants us to know it"
idea of the social contract: individuals must give up certain rights in order to have a well ordered society, pessimistic about human nature, supports absolute monarchy. - British
more optimistic about human nature, believes in natural rights - life, liberty, and property, thinks the purpose of the gov. is to protect peoples natural rights - British
Baron de Montesquieu
thought that government should have balance of power (3 branches) and the branches can make sure the others don't get too powerful
critical of France's currents government, slavery, the Catholic Church, and the death penalty. believed in freedom of press and speech
wrote about the justice system and punishing criminals. critical of" torture and death penalty. advocate of trial by jury
father of capitalism, wrote The Wealth of Nations, though markets should be free from government interference
Tennis Court Oath
the deputies of the 3rd estate vowed to meet until there was a constitution, they renamed themselves the National Assembly
Declaration of the Rights of Man
a document saying all people were equal and there would be a constitutional monarchy - eventually signed by Louis XVI
Friend of the People
Jean Paul Marat's newspaper that berates the nobles and encourages a bloody rebellion
political party (Robespierre and Marat) wanted the most radical change (get rid of the king)
Sans Coulette break into a prison holding 1600 political enemies and slaughter them all
a period in which the constitution was post-poned and thousand of suspected "counter-revolutionaries" were killed
The Great Terror
6 weeks before Robespierre's death in which the amount of executions increased even more
heart of the revolutionary government, wanted to form a new society (terror with virtue) executed in 1794
King of France in 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
minister of justice encouraged people to join the war efforts, face / voice of the revolution
Robespierre is executed and the Reign of Terror ends. French grow tired of bloody executions and they want things to calm and become less radical
Causes of Revolution
mistreatment of the citizens, loss of the 7 year war, Age of Enlightenment, deficit spending, American Rev., Louis raises taxes on 3rd estate
Flight to Varennes
Louis, Marie and children try to flee France but only get as far as the city of Varennes
system of government in which five men share absolute dictatorship, unpopular and corrupt, allows Napoleon to step in and overthrow
Concordat of 1801
peace agreement with the Catholic Church solidifies Napoleon's popularity esp. among paseants
code of laws in which all men were equal under the law (no classes) adopted by all the countries Napoleon conquers
economic (prosperity in France) educational
(public schools) concordat of 1801, legal (Napoleonic code)
Napoleon attempts to weaken Britain by keeping all their goods out of Europe (weakening economy)
Invasion of Russia
France tries to invade Russia who use slash-and-burn and only 20000 of the 600000 French army survive
Battle of Leipzig
Austria, Prussia, Russia and UK come together to defeat Napoleon after he is weakened from invading Russia
island which Napoleon exiled after he abdicated the throne he escapes and comes back to France for 100 days
Napoleon's last battle, occurs in Belgium. he is defeated by the UK/Prussia he is sent to St Helene
Clemens von Metternich
reps. Austria at Congress of Vienna, becomes main political figure in Europe after Napoleon dies
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