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idea of the geocentric universe which was accepted by the church - 2nd century

Nicolaus Copernicus

idea of the heliocentric universe, not accepted at the time - Polish

Tycho Brahe

"Great Observer of the Night Sky" - Polish

Johannes Kepler

Brahe's assistant. Discovered that that the universe WAS heliocentric but that the planets traveled in ellipses - German

Galileo Galilei

invents the telescope and publishes a book based on his observations and is arrested by the church, he is forced to "take back" his observations - Italian

Francis Bacon

father of the scientific method emphasis on observation - British

Rene Descartes

idea that we cannot always rely on our senses we can only trust our mind, emphasis on reason. "I think therefor I am" - French

Isaac Newton

laws of gravity, thinks the universe is orderly and structured. "God wants us to know it"

Thomas Hobbes

idea of the social contract: individuals must give up certain rights in order to have a well ordered society, pessimistic about human nature, supports absolute monarchy. - British

John Locke

more optimistic about human nature, believes in natural rights - life, liberty, and property, thinks the purpose of the gov. is to protect peoples natural rights - British

Baron de Montesquieu

thought that government should have balance of power (3 branches) and the branches can make sure the others don't get too powerful


critical of France's currents government, slavery, the Catholic Church, and the death penalty. believed in freedom of press and speech

Cesare Beccaria

wrote about the justice system and punishing criminals. critical of" torture and death penalty. advocate of trial by jury

Mary Wollstonecraft

advocate of women's rights (ideas of freedom should apply to women and men)

Adam Smith

father of capitalism, wrote The Wealth of Nations, though markets should be free from government interference

Old Regime

told what to think by priests and royalty


royal palace of the Bourbon family

Estate System

1. Clergy 2. Aristocracy 3. Other (97%) - most heavily taxed

Tennis Court Oath

the deputies of the 3rd estate vowed to meet until there was a constitution, they renamed themselves the National Assembly

Declaration of the Rights of Man

a document saying all people were equal and there would be a constitutional monarchy - eventually signed by Louis XVI

Friend of the People

Jean Paul Marat's newspaper that berates the nobles and encourages a bloody rebellion


castle/prison in Paris where gunpowder was stored, destroyed by the French people


political party (Robespierre and Marat) wanted the most radical change (get rid of the king)


decapitation machine (painless)

Sans Coulette

French citizen that doesn't wear breeches as a sign of rebellion

Committee of Public Safety

council of 12 men who had collective dictatorship

Estates General

reps. from each estate that called be called upon to advise the king

September Massacre

Sans Coulette break into a prison holding 1600 political enemies and slaughter them all

The Terror

a period in which the constitution was post-poned and thousand of suspected "counter-revolutionaries" were killed

De - Christianization

the government tries to stamp out everything Christian

The Great Terror

6 weeks before Robespierre's death in which the amount of executions increased even more

Maximilien Robespierre

heart of the revolutionary government, wanted to form a new society (terror with virtue) executed in 1794

Louis XVI

King of France in 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

Marie Antoinette

Hapsberg family, Austrian, obsessed with fashion and spending money

Jena Paul Marat

Jacobin writes the Friend of the People newspaper, assasinated


financial prime minister - liked by the 3rd estate eventually fired by Louis XVI


minister of justice encouraged people to join the war efforts, face / voice of the revolution

Charlotte Cordae

assasinates Jean Paul Marat


moderates, want a constitutional monarchy

Thermidorian Reaction

Robespierre is executed and the Reign of Terror ends. French grow tired of bloody executions and they want things to calm and become less radical

Fishmonger Women

Storm the Palace of Versailles and force the Kind to relocate to Paris

Causes of Revolution

mistreatment of the citizens, loss of the 7 year war, Age of Enlightenment, deficit spending, American Rev., Louis raises taxes on 3rd estate

Flight to Varennes

Louis, Marie and children try to flee France but only get as far as the city of Varennes


system of government in which five men share absolute dictatorship, unpopular and corrupt, allows Napoleon to step in and overthrow

coup de tat

(usually bloody) overthrow of government mean blow of state


government in which 3 men share absolute dictatorship of France (Napoleon)

1st Consule

Napolean's next title

Consule for Life

Napolean's 3rd title


The French people vote if they want Napoleon to become emperor (they vote yes)

Concordat of 1801

peace agreement with the Catholic Church solidifies Napoleon's popularity esp. among paseants

Napoleonic Code

code of laws in which all men were equal under the law (no classes) adopted by all the countries Napoleon conquers


economic (prosperity in France) educational
(public schools) concordat of 1801, legal (Napoleonic code)


French vs British navy battle, British win, Napoleon gives up on trying to invade Britain

Confed. of the Rhine

Napoleon united 300 germanic kingdoms into 38 over which he has control

Continential System

Napoleon attempts to weaken Britain by keeping all their goods out of Europe (weakening economy)

Peninsular War

Spain revolts against Napoleon when he tries to get to Portugal through Spain

Invasion of Russia

France tries to invade Russia who use slash-and-burn and only 20000 of the 600000 French army survive

Guerilla Warfare

Spanish for little war, using the terrain to help fight (attack then escape)

Battle of Leipzig

Austria, Prussia, Russia and UK come together to defeat Napoleon after he is weakened from invading Russia


to surrender the position of ruler (Napoleon does this)


island which Napoleon exiled after he abdicated the throne he escapes and comes back to France for 100 days

100 Days

Napoleon is in France for 100 days after he abdicates (builds up an army)


Napoleon's last battle, occurs in Belgium. he is defeated by the UK/Prussia he is sent to St Helene

St Helena

island where Napoleon is exiled the 2nd time

balance of power

one country should not be strong enough to conquer another (common goal)


crowns were restored to leaders overthrown by Napoleon

Quadruple Alliance

Austria, Prussia, UK, Russia

Concert of Euro,

periodically nations would meet to discuss their problems to avoid war

Horatio Nelson

British naval officer, leads the British at Trafalgar, dies

Tsar Alex. I

leads Russia


restored to France when Napoleon is executed

Duke of Wellington

reps. UK at congress of Vienna

General Blucher

lead the Prussian army

Clemens von Metternich

reps. Austria at Congress of Vienna, becomes main political figure in Europe after Napoleon dies

Robert Castleregh

reps. UK at congress of Vienna

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand

reps. France at congress of Vienna

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