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76 terms

French Revolution

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Ptolemy
idea of the geocentric universe which was accepted by the church - 2nd century
Nicolaus Copernicus
idea of the heliocentric universe, not accepted at the time - Polish
Tycho Brahe
"Great Observer of the Night Sky" - Polish
Johannes Kepler
Brahe's assistant. Discovered that that the universe WAS heliocentric but that the planets traveled in ellipses - German
Galileo Galilei
invents the telescope and publishes a book based on his observations and is arrested by the church, he is forced to "take back" his observations - Italian
Francis Bacon
father of the scientific method emphasis on observation - British
Rene Descartes
idea that we cannot always rely on our senses we can only trust our mind, emphasis on reason. "I think therefor I am" - French
Isaac Newton
laws of gravity, thinks the universe is orderly and structured. "God wants us to know it"
Thomas Hobbes
idea of the social contract: individuals must give up certain rights in order to have a well ordered society, pessimistic about human nature, supports absolute monarchy. - British
John Locke
more optimistic about human nature, believes in natural rights - life, liberty, and property, thinks the purpose of the gov. is to protect peoples natural rights - British
Baron de Montesquieu
thought that government should have balance of power (3 branches) and the branches can make sure the others don't get too powerful
Voltaire
critical of France's currents government, slavery, the Catholic Church, and the death penalty. believed in freedom of press and speech
Cesare Beccaria
wrote about the justice system and punishing criminals. critical of" torture and death penalty. advocate of trial by jury
Mary Wollstonecraft
advocate of women's rights (ideas of freedom should apply to women and men)
Adam Smith
father of capitalism, wrote The Wealth of Nations, though markets should be free from government interference
Old Regime
told what to think by priests and royalty
Versailles
royal palace of the Bourbon family
Estate System
1. Clergy 2. Aristocracy 3. Other (97%) - most heavily taxed
Tennis Court Oath
the deputies of the 3rd estate vowed to meet until there was a constitution, they renamed themselves the National Assembly
Declaration of the Rights of Man
a document saying all people were equal and there would be a constitutional monarchy - eventually signed by Louis XVI
Friend of the People
Jean Paul Marat's newspaper that berates the nobles and encourages a bloody rebellion
Bastille
castle/prison in Paris where gunpowder was stored, destroyed by the French people
Jacobins
political party (Robespierre and Marat) wanted the most radical change (get rid of the king)
Guillotine
decapitation machine (painless)
Sans Coulette
French citizen that doesn't wear breeches as a sign of rebellion
Committee of Public Safety
council of 12 men who had collective dictatorship
Estates General
reps. from each estate that called be called upon to advise the king
September Massacre
Sans Coulette break into a prison holding 1600 political enemies and slaughter them all
The Terror
a period in which the constitution was post-poned and thousand of suspected "counter-revolutionaries" were killed
De - Christianization
the government tries to stamp out everything Christian
The Great Terror
6 weeks before Robespierre's death in which the amount of executions increased even more
Maximilien Robespierre
heart of the revolutionary government, wanted to form a new society (terror with virtue) executed in 1794
Louis XVI
King of France in 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Marie Antoinette
Hapsberg family, Austrian, obsessed with fashion and spending money
Jena Paul Marat
Jacobin writes the Friend of the People newspaper, assasinated
Necker
financial prime minister - liked by the 3rd estate eventually fired by Louis XVI
Danton
minister of justice encouraged people to join the war efforts, face / voice of the revolution
Charlotte Cordae
assasinates Jean Paul Marat
Girodians
moderates, want a constitutional monarchy
Thermidorian Reaction
Robespierre is executed and the Reign of Terror ends. French grow tired of bloody executions and they want things to calm and become less radical
Fishmonger Women
Storm the Palace of Versailles and force the Kind to relocate to Paris
Causes of Revolution
mistreatment of the citizens, loss of the 7 year war, Age of Enlightenment, deficit spending, American Rev., Louis raises taxes on 3rd estate
Flight to Varennes
Louis, Marie and children try to flee France but only get as far as the city of Varennes
Directory
system of government in which five men share absolute dictatorship, unpopular and corrupt, allows Napoleon to step in and overthrow
coup de tat
(usually bloody) overthrow of government mean blow of state
consulate
government in which 3 men share absolute dictatorship of France (Napoleon)
1st Consule
Napolean's next title
Consule for Life
Napolean's 3rd title
Plebiscite
The French people vote if they want Napoleon to become emperor (they vote yes)
Concordat of 1801
peace agreement with the Catholic Church solidifies Napoleon's popularity esp. among paseants
Napoleonic Code
code of laws in which all men were equal under the law (no classes) adopted by all the countries Napoleon conquers
reforms
economic (prosperity in France) educational
(public schools) concordat of 1801, legal (Napoleonic code)
Trafalgar
French vs British navy battle, British win, Napoleon gives up on trying to invade Britain
Confed. of the Rhine
Napoleon united 300 germanic kingdoms into 38 over which he has control
Continential System
Napoleon attempts to weaken Britain by keeping all their goods out of Europe (weakening economy)
Peninsular War
Spain revolts against Napoleon when he tries to get to Portugal through Spain
Invasion of Russia
France tries to invade Russia who use slash-and-burn and only 20000 of the 600000 French army survive
Guerilla Warfare
Spanish for little war, using the terrain to help fight (attack then escape)
Battle of Leipzig
Austria, Prussia, Russia and UK come together to defeat Napoleon after he is weakened from invading Russia
abdication
to surrender the position of ruler (Napoleon does this)
Elba
island which Napoleon exiled after he abdicated the throne he escapes and comes back to France for 100 days
100 Days
Napoleon is in France for 100 days after he abdicates (builds up an army)
Waterloo
Napoleon's last battle, occurs in Belgium. he is defeated by the UK/Prussia he is sent to St Helene
St Helena
island where Napoleon is exiled the 2nd time
balance of power
one country should not be strong enough to conquer another (common goal)
legitimacy
crowns were restored to leaders overthrown by Napoleon
Quadruple Alliance
Austria, Prussia, UK, Russia
Concert of Euro,
periodically nations would meet to discuss their problems to avoid war
Horatio Nelson
British naval officer, leads the British at Trafalgar, dies
Tsar Alex. I
leads Russia
Louis XVIII
restored to France when Napoleon is executed
Duke of Wellington
reps. UK at congress of Vienna
General Blucher
lead the Prussian army
Clemens von Metternich
reps. Austria at Congress of Vienna, becomes main political figure in Europe after Napoleon dies
Robert Castleregh
reps. UK at congress of Vienna
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
reps. France at congress of Vienna