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Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
Terms in this set (63)
The nipple is contained within the ____ dermatome.
The nipple is located at the ______ intercostal interspace in males and young women.
The __________________ _________ represents the inferior margin of the base of the breast where significant change in skin curvature occurs.
The inframammary is generally anterior to rib _____.
6 or 7
Lymph formed in the nipple, areola, and mammary gland lobes drain into the ______________ lymphatic plexus, which then enters either the axillary lymph node group or parasternal lymph nodes.
More than 75% of the total lymph (mostly the lateral breast quadrants and axillary tail) drains to the ____________ lymph nodes.
Less than 25% of the total lymph (mostly from the medial breast quadrants) enters the R/L ________________________ lymph nodes.
The _________________ lymph nodes are adjacent to the R/L internal thoracic veins.
Subcutaneous nodes (ie subareolar nodes) have copious anastomoses. What are some of them?
1) can cross midline to lymphatics of other breast
2) may travel superiorly across clavicle to supraclavicular area
3) may travel caudally to abdominal wall
4) can rise to widespread malignancy
What are the four breast quadrants?
What are the embryonic milk lines (i.e. mammary ridges)?
two lines that exist from axillary to inguinal regions, each lateral to midline
In cases where a mammary ridge persists, a ____________ with or without underlying breast tissue can form and be present in the adult.
nipple (supernumerary breast/nipple)
Can males get supernumerary nipples?
yes, they are often mistaken for moles
Can supernumerary breast tissue harbor a malignant tumor?
What is edema of the breast from lymphatic blockage, which causes a leathery dimpled appearance on the skin?
Peau d'Orange (lymphedema)
What is skin dimpling and what is it indicative of?
cancer invasion of glandular tissue and fibrosis (fibrous degeneration; fibrous tissue forms or replaces other tissues), causes shortening or places of traction on the suspensory ligaments
What is decreased mobility of the breasts indicative of?
extension of a tumor into the retromammary space, which allows breast to become attached to the deep fascia; breasts are fixated and won't slide easily
What is the potential space between the retromammary fascia and deep investing fascia of the pectoralis major muscle?
What is the narrowest dimension of the entrance to the birth canal in the anterior/posterior?
obstetric conjugate diameter
What diameter is represented as the chord distance from the sagittal midline of the sacral promontory to the nearest point on the internal (posterior) surface of the pubic symphisis?
obstetric conjugate diameter
What diameter is represented as the chord distance from the sagittal midline of the sacral promontory to the inferior margin of the pubic symphisis?
diagonal conjugate diameter
What is the narrowest dimension of the pelvic outlet?
the bispinous diameter
What diameter is represented as the chord distance between the right and left ischial spines?
the bispinous diameter
The rounded region of the uterine body located superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes is the ______________ _____________.
The relatively narrow inferior 1/3rd of the uterus is the _______________ ______________.
Intervening between the uterine body and the uterine cervix is the uterine _______________.
When the uterus is tipped more anteriorly relative to the axis of the vagina, it is referred to as ___________________.
When the uterus is tipped more superiorly or posterosuperioly relative to the axis of the vagina, it is referred to as ___________________.
When the uterus is bent anteriorly relative to the cervix, it is referred to as _______________.
When the uterus is bent psoteriorly relative to the cervix, it is referred to as _______________.
Contraction of the _____________ _______________ provides dynamic support to the uterus and its anteverted and anteflexed position on top of the bladder.
Passive support of the pelvic cavity is provided by both of the _______________ of the endopelvic fascia.
ligaments (transverse cervical ligaments of the uterus and the uterosacral ligaments)
Thickenings of the ________________ fascia help prevent the uterus from prolapsing into the vagina.
What vascular structures are embedded in the transverse cervical ligament?
uterine artery, uterine vein, and lymphatics
What vascular structures transcend the suspensory ligament of the ovary?
the ovarian vessels
What vascular structures transcend the proper ligament of the ovary?
The ______________ ligament is stretched during pregnancy and may result in the sensation of a 'pulling' in the groin area.
Upon exiting the superficial inguinal ring, the round ligament enters the ____________ _____________ of the external genitalia where it inserts into superficial fascia.
Damage to the _________________ ___________ during late pregnancy and childbirth can cause medial thigh pain or numbness, and spasms of the adductor muscles.
Palpation of the ovaries can be done through the ______________ vaginal fornices.
Palpation of the ureters can be done through the ______________ vaginal fornices.
Palpation of the uterine arteries can be done through the _______________ vaginal fornices.
Draining of the rectouterine pouch can be done by inserting an aspirating needle through the ___________ vaginal fornix.
Oocytes can be harvested for in vitro fertilization through the _______________ vaginal fornices.
By virtue of its proximity to the uterine artery, the ________________ is at risk of being clamped, tied off, and severed during hysterectomies.
How is a spinal block performed?
anesthetic is injected directly into the subarachnoid space at the L3/L4 disc space
What is anesthetized in a spinal block?
since the anesthetic is injected directly into the subarachnoid space at L3/L4, it can flow freely within this space and all nerves below the level of T9 are anesthetized
What is the clinical effect of a spinal block?
inability to sense uterine contractions and the temporary loss of motor and sensory functions of the lower limbs
How is a caudal epidural block performed?
anesthetic is administered using an in-dwelling catheter into the epidural space of the sacral canal
The _______________ spinal nerves are restricted in a caudal epidural block.
What are the clinical effect of a caudal epidural block?
the entire birth canal, pelvic floor, and most of the perineum are anesthetized; the mother is aware of her contractions and lower limb function is maintained
During a caudal epidural block, are the ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves affected?
No, these innervate the anterior portion of the perineum
________________ ___________ block blocks pain from the lower vagina and majority of the perineum.
What is the clinical effect of a pudendal nerve block?
blocks pain from the lower vagina and majority of the perineum; the mother is aware of both cervical dilation and uterine contractions
The pudendal nerve is a ________________ nerve.
somatic (both motor and sensory)
How is a pudendal nerve block performed?
a needle is directed toward its location at the ischial spine, usually from within the vagina
What is the male homologue of the female clitoris?
What is the male homologue of the female vestibular bulbs?
bulb of penis and corpus spongiosum
What is the male homologue of the female greater vestibular glands?
male bulbourethral glands
The distal portions of the ureters, most of the urinary bladder, the prostate, and seminal vesicles are all below the peritoneum and therefore follow _____________________________ nerve routes.
All visceral pain arising from the middle of the sigmoid colon through the distal end of the hindgut-derived portion of the anal canal travels along _______________________ routes.
What regions of the body do the S2 - S4 dermatomes refer to?
external genitalia, perianal region, and the posteromedial thigh and leg
The perineum is a ________________ region.
Somatic (Pundendal nerve)
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