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Earth/Environmental Science 2019
Terms in this set (152)
In an experiment, the standard that is used for comparison
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
A suggested answer to a scientific question that is testable.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic.
An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
A statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions, in form of mathematical equation.
A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations.
A map that shows elevation of a land by the use of contour lines.
The ability to keep in existence by meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The largest number of individuals of a population that an environment can support.
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
A growth pattern whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size.
The using up of a resource.
The impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.
Any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact.
A nonliving part of an organism's habitat.
The release of harmful materials into the environment.
The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity.
A group of ecosystems that have the same type of climate and dominant communities.
All parts of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air.
The accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in various tissues of a living organism.
An accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain.
Trees and shrubs that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
All the different populations of organisms that live together in an area.
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Species that enter new ecosystems (non-native), multiply, and harm native species and their habitats.
Energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy.
Power obtained by harnessing the energy of the wind.
Fuels, such as ethanol or methanol, that are created from the fermentation of plants or plant products.
A nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy.
An electrochemical cell that uses replenishable substances such as hydrogen or oxygen or water to produce electricity.
Energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricity.
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
A natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed.
A resource that cannot be reused or replaced easily (ex. gems, iron, copper, fossil fuels).
The process of obtaining heat or energy from a large body of water.
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
Molten rock beneath the earth's surface.
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.
The process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup.
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
To carry or move from one place to another.
The washing away of surface materials by wind, water, ice, or gravity.
The change in state from a solid to a liquid
Divergent Plate Boundary
Boundary between tectonic plates in which the two plates move away from each other, and new crust is created between them.
Convergent Plate Boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
Transform Fault Boundary
A boundary in which two plates slide past each other without creating or destroying lithosphere.
The transfer of thermal energy by the circular movement of a liquid or gas.
The transfer of heat from one substance to another by direct contact.
Magma that reaches Earth's surface.
A type of igneous rock that forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.
Igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface.
A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move.
The region where oceanic plates converge and one plate sinks below another.
A sudden, violent movement of Earth's crust.
Point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
The point beneath Earth's surface where an earthquake originates.
The record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph.
A wide, gently sloping volcano made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions.
Cinder Cone Volcano
A small, steeply sloped volcano that forms from moderately explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material.
A tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials
Thick and adhesive, like a slow-flowing fluid.
The volcanic rock ejected during an eruption, including ash, bombs, and blocks.
An avalanche of volcanic water and mud down the slopes of a volcano.
A giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor.
The excavation of the earth for the purpose of extracting ore or minerals
Movement of people from rural areas to cities.
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
Intensive farming practices involving mechanization and mass production.
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages.
The pumping of water at high pressure to break apart rocks in order to release natural gas.
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
The act of making something useful again.
Destruction of vegetation caused by too many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area so they cannot recover.
Dust Bowl Effect
A natural disaster in the 1930s in which drought and poor farming practices killed crops and caused such extensive soil erosion that led to dust storms.
The process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
The change of state from a liquid to a gas.
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
The change of state from a gas to a liquid.
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant.
Salt Water Intrusion
The movement of salt water into an aquifer near the coast when groundwater is over-pumped.
Water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground.
Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it.
Water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers.
A body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater.
The upper level of the saturated zone of groundwater.
A rate of inclination; A slope
A lowland area, such as a marsh or swamp, that is saturated with moisture, especially when regarded as the natural habitat of wildlife.
The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.
A habitat in which the freshwater of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.
The maximum amount that something can contain.
Water that is safe to drink
The percentage of the total volume of open space between sediments.
The gradual caving in or sinking of an area of land.
A flow of groundwater that emerges naturally at the ground surface.
An area along a river that forms from sediments deposited when the river overflows its banks.
A wetland ecosystem in which shrubs and trees grow.
A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon.
The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time.
A change in state from solid to gas.
A change in state from gas to solid.
A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air.
The amount of matter in a given volume.
The state that occurs when no more of something can be absorbed, combined with, or added.
The temperature at which condensation begins.
The percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor that air can contain at a particular temperature.
A huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height.
A boundary between two air masses.
A gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms and absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
A high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere.
A mass of sinking cool air that usually bring fair weather.
A mass of rising warm air that usually bring wet, stormy weather.
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents; in the northern hemisphere they are deflected to the right and in the southern hemisphere they are deflected left.
A dry air mass that forms over land.
A humid air mass that forms over oceans.
A warm air mass that forms in the tropics.
A cold air mass that forms near the poles.
An irregularly periodic variation in winds and warming sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
An irregularly periodic variation in winds and cooling sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
Heat Island Effect
Warmer temperatures experienced in urban landscapes due to solar energy retention on constructed surfaces.
An increase in the concentration of acid.
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere.
An imaginary line, passing through Earth's center, about which Earth rotates.
The center of mass of two or more bodies orbiting around each other.
The process by which the nuclei two or more small atoms fuse together make a larger nucleus of an atom.
A force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses.
A model of the solar system in which Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
The wobbling of the Earth's axis that is superimposed on Earth's precession.
A slow motion of Earth's axis that traces out a cone over a period of 26,000 years.
The spinning motion of a planet on its axis.
The movement of an object around another object.
The point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid, or comet at which it is closest to the sun.
The point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid, or comet at which it is farthest from the sun.
Tides that have the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides due to the alignment of the earth-moon-sun system.
The tides with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides
The average distance between Earth and the sun, about 150 million kilometers, used for length within the solar system.
Occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth.
Occurs when the Earth passes directly between the moon and the sun, casting a shadow over the moon.
A elongated circle, or oval shape, the shape of the planets orbit.
Each of the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) marked by particular weather patterns and daylight hours, resulting from the earth's tilt and revolution around the sun.
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
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