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World Wars Unit 1 Exam: Causes of World War One, Mr. Schneider, created 1/25/11, test on 1/28/11

Congress of Vienna

defeated Napoleon who redesigns the borders of Germany after his conquest and tries to create a balance of power in Europe

Otto Von Bismarck

"unites" Germany (started as his dream), Chacellor of Prussia


unites the German states, excludes Austria in an economic union (Prussia at head), later Austria invited but begins to push others around - Austria kicked out

Austro-Prussian War

Prussia victory after Austria kicked out of Zollverein, Austria becomes its own entity, Prussia rises in power with nation states


borders both France and Germany, German culture, annexed by France, Bismarck wanted them back, increase of tensions

Franco-Prussian War

Spain had a vacant throne and King Lephold (Prussian) was the next heir to the throne, Bismarck pushes France, France protests the heir and threatens war against Prussia, Bismarck unites Germany and invades France, Unified Germany wins, France gives back Alsace-Lorraine to Germany

"The Sick Man of Europe"

The Ottoman Empire in its decline as a European power, leaves Balkan states up for grabs


belief that different groups of Austro-Hungarians would break off to join soverign nations of Balkan States


Russia felt a kinship to the Slavic peoples of the Balkans, wanted Constantinople control, "Big Brother" to Balkan States

Splendid Isolation

Bismarck wanted to isolate France, created treaties/agreements with possible powers of threat to Germany if with France, France despised Germany (A and L), Germany could beat France one on one

Three Emperors' League

Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Germany, Non-agrression agreement, all going for Balkan States, destroyed by France and Russian talk, Russo-Turkish War (German and Austria don't aid)

Russo-Turkish War

Russia invades Balkans, Gets Constantinople after beating Turks, Congress of Berlin discusses this issue

Congress of Berlin

Forces Russia to back down from taking Constan, especially Britain and Austria-Hungary, Russia made at 3 Emperors' League and pulled out

The Dual Alliance (1879)

Germany and Austria-Hungary, fear of encirclement, Austria at southern border of Germany


make ties with bordering countries to avoid being surrounded by enemies

Triple Alliance (1882)

Germany and Austria expand the Dual Alliance to include Italy, primarily to stop Italy-French alliance

Reinsurance Treaty (1887)

Three Emperors' League broken again, Austria vs. Russia, only Germany and Russia (economy, non-aggression)

Lombard Decree

German investors buy lands on Russian border, Russia stops this and Bismarck says entrepeuners of Russia can't sell in German markets

Kaiser Wilhelm II

takes throne of Germany, wants to take control from Bismarck and fires him, use German influence to increase power, let's Reinsurance Treaty expire,

Franco-Russian Alliance

Economic, both needed a "friend", after Germany didn't renew the Reinsurance Treaty Russia befriends France, created 2 powerful and competing alliance systems

Alliance of Iron and Rye

b/w wealthy of Germany and new industrialists (agriculture and industry help each other to develop), German industry booms to surpass England

Kruger Telegram

Germany helps Boers against Britain, Brit. blockades, Boers win and Wilhelm of Germany congratulates Kruger (Boer leader)

Moroccan Crisis

France and England make a deal to give Morocco to France, Germany protests, Algeciras Conference where Germany and Austria vs. everyone

Alfred Thayer Mahan

wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, whoever has a strong influence on the seas will become a world power, Germany dev. their Navy

German Blue Water Fleet

state of the art with new tech., dev. of capital ships (battleships), Britain thinks they are targeting their homeland

Entente Cordial (1904)

France and Britain, mutual Navy protection, French Navy guards Britain's colonialism in Meditteranean, while British fleet protects homeland and French Coast

Triple Entente (1907)

France, Russia, and Brit., France mediated peace, cast away differences to face German threat to Europe

Bosnian Crisis

Austria and Russia, Austria annexes Bosnia, Russia gains access to Bosporus Straits, Austria gets Bosnia but Europe denies Russia Straits, Russia feels cheated

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Sarajevo, Bosnia, July 1914, assassinated by Serbia Black Hand Organization

Gavrilo Princip

assassinated Franz Ferdinand

The Black Hand

Serbian Organization of terrorists, planned assassination of F.F.

Post-Franz Ferdinand

Austria suspects Serbian gov. and makes demands to Serbia who refused, Austria declares war, Russia backs Serbia, Germany backs Austria but declares war on France, France backs Russia

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