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Congress of Vienna
defeated Napoleon who redesigns the borders of Germany after his conquest and tries to create a balance of power in Europe
unites the German states, excludes Austria in an economic union (Prussia at head), later Austria invited but begins to push others around - Austria kicked out
Prussia victory after Austria kicked out of Zollverein, Austria becomes its own entity, Prussia rises in power with nation states
borders both France and Germany, German culture, annexed by France, Bismarck wanted them back, increase of tensions
Spain had a vacant throne and King Lephold (Prussian) was the next heir to the throne, Bismarck pushes France, France protests the heir and threatens war against Prussia, Bismarck unites Germany and invades France, Unified Germany wins, France gives back Alsace-Lorraine to Germany
"The Sick Man of Europe"
The Ottoman Empire in its decline as a European power, leaves Balkan states up for grabs
belief that different groups of Austro-Hungarians would break off to join soverign nations of Balkan States
Russia felt a kinship to the Slavic peoples of the Balkans, wanted Constantinople control, "Big Brother" to Balkan States
Bismarck wanted to isolate France, created treaties/agreements with possible powers of threat to Germany if with France, France despised Germany (A and L), Germany could beat France one on one
Three Emperors' League
Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Germany, Non-agrression agreement, all going for Balkan States, destroyed by France and Russian talk, Russo-Turkish War (German and Austria don't aid)
Russia invades Balkans, Gets Constantinople after beating Turks, Congress of Berlin discusses this issue
Congress of Berlin
Forces Russia to back down from taking Constan, especially Britain and Austria-Hungary, Russia made at 3 Emperors' League and pulled out
The Dual Alliance (1879)
Germany and Austria-Hungary, fear of encirclement, Austria at southern border of Germany
Triple Alliance (1882)
Germany and Austria expand the Dual Alliance to include Italy, primarily to stop Italy-French alliance
Reinsurance Treaty (1887)
Three Emperors' League broken again, Austria vs. Russia, only Germany and Russia (economy, non-aggression)
German investors buy lands on Russian border, Russia stops this and Bismarck says entrepeuners of Russia can't sell in German markets
Kaiser Wilhelm II
takes throne of Germany, wants to take control from Bismarck and fires him, use German influence to increase power, let's Reinsurance Treaty expire,
Economic, both needed a "friend", after Germany didn't renew the Reinsurance Treaty Russia befriends France, created 2 powerful and competing alliance systems
Alliance of Iron and Rye
b/w wealthy of Germany and new industrialists (agriculture and industry help each other to develop), German industry booms to surpass England
Germany helps Boers against Britain, Brit. blockades, Boers win and Wilhelm of Germany congratulates Kruger (Boer leader)
France and England make a deal to give Morocco to France, Germany protests, Algeciras Conference where Germany and Austria vs. everyone
Alfred Thayer Mahan
wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, whoever has a strong influence on the seas will become a world power, Germany dev. their Navy
German Blue Water Fleet
state of the art with new tech., dev. of capital ships (battleships), Britain thinks they are targeting their homeland
Entente Cordial (1904)
France and Britain, mutual Navy protection, French Navy guards Britain's colonialism in Meditteranean, while British fleet protects homeland and French Coast
Triple Entente (1907)
France, Russia, and Brit., France mediated peace, cast away differences to face German threat to Europe
Austria and Russia, Austria annexes Bosnia, Russia gains access to Bosporus Straits, Austria gets Bosnia but Europe denies Russia Straits, Russia feels cheated
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Sarajevo, Bosnia, July 1914, assassinated by Serbia Black Hand Organization
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