1. According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of
WWTF are you conscious
2. The person who established America's first psychological research laboratory and who launched America's first psychology journal was
G. Stanley Hall
3. The first president of the American Psychological Association (APA) was
G. Stanley Hall
4. Introspection was most likely to be used by
5. The first woman to serve as President of the American Psychological Association was
Mary Whilton Calkins
6. The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is most consistent with the views of
7. Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called
8. The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was
John B. Watson
9. Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or non-aggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison's views are most consistent with the
Nature vs. Nurture, Nurture - learn by experience
10. The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was
11. The theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, is
12. The theoretical viewpoint that is most closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow is
13. The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called
14. Which of the following groups is most likely to have been used as subjects for psychological research?
15. Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study are called
16. A hypothesis is
tentative statement about relationship between 2 or more things
17. In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the
18. The purpose of the control group is to
see what has changed
19. In experiments, placing subjects in experimental groups such that each subject has an equal probability of ending up in any experimental group is referred to as
21. Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
all brought in the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study
22. The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores, such that half the scores fall below that score and half the scores fall above it, is the
23. The standard deviation is a measure of
amount of variability in a set of data
24. Placebos are used in research to control for
effects of a treacherous extraneous variable, participants expectation
25. One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
double blind - procedure will control for experiment bias neither subject nor experimenter know experiment from control
26. ____ receive information from other neurons; ____ transmit information to other neurons.
Dendrites receive information and axons transmit information to other neurons
27. Faster neural impulses occur in
neurons covered in myelin
28. Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures through which information flows in a neuron?
dendrites - soma - axon - presynaptic terminals
29. The tiny electrical charge that exists when a neuron is not receiving and/or sending information is called
resting potential - stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
30. When sodium channels open, allowing sodium ions to flow into a neuron, it causes
action potential INCREASES - brief shift in neurons electrical charge that travels along axon when channels open allowing sodium ions to flow into neuron
31. The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
absolute refractory period- minimum length of time between action potentials
32. If action potentials follow the all-or-none principle how is it possible for us to distinguish between different levels of stimulus intensity?
neurons can convey information about strength of stimulus by varying rate of which they fire action potentials
33. If IPSP's did not exist
decreases likelihood neuron will fire action potentials.
34. Reabsorption of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron is referred to as
reuptake - reabsorption of neurotransmitters
35. An agonist
chemical that mimics action of a neurotransmitter
36. An antagonist
chemical that opposes/blocks action of a neurotransmitter
37. Abnormalities at norepinephrine and serotonin synapses appear to play a role in which of the following?
depression and OCD
38. ____ nerves receive information, while ____ nerves carry out instructions.
afferent nerves receive info, efferent nerves carry out instructions
39. That part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the
autonomic nervous system
40. Erin suffered a brain injury and her neurologist has told her that there is damage to her reticular formation. In this instance, Erin is most likely to experience
reticular formation contributes to modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing and pain
41. The brain structure that appears to play a vital role in the regulation of temperature regulation, hunger, thirst, and sexual motivation is the
hypothalamus HUNGRY HYPER HIYPO
42. Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
43. The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the
44. In which of the lobes of the cerebrum is the somatosensory cortex located?
45. The most recent research investigating the brain's plasticity suggests that
anatomical structure and functional organization of brain is more malleable than assumed brains plasticity declines with age
46. If you have difficulty understanding the meaning of someone's speech, you may suspect damage to
primary auditory cortex
47. In both split-brain people and neurologically intact people, the left hemisphere specializes in
left hemisphere connects and communicates with right hand, arm, eyebrow, etc. specializes in language - verbal processing, language speech reading and writing
48. The system of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream is known as the
49. According to psychologists, the minimum stimulus intensity of any sensory input that an organism can detect is
an absolute threshold for a specific type of sensory input is the minimum stimulus intensity an organism can detect
50. According to psychologists, the smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect is
just noticeable difference (JND) smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect
51. According to ____, the ability to detect a stimulus depends not only on the intensity of the stimulus but also on other variables such as the level of noise in the system and your expectations.
signal detection theory
52. The registration of sensory input without conscious awareness refers to
subliminal perception - registration of sensory input without conscious awareness
53. Sensory adaptation refers to
sensory adaptation - gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
54. Overall, it appears that we perceive
we perceive changing stimuli better than constant ones
55. The wavelength of light mainly affects our perception of
56. If the human eye was not responsive to differences in the amplitude of light waves, we would not be able to perceive differences in
58. Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on ____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on____
cones - daylight vision/color rods - night time/ peripheral
59. The primary visual cortex is located in the
60. Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex stimuli are called
feature detectors - neurons that respond selectively to specific features of more complex stimuli
61. If you look at a sheet of notebook paper set on a table, the distal stimulus is the ____, and the proximal stimulus is the ____.
paper / image projected on a retina.
62. The binocular depth cue that relies on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so that the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object is known as
retinal disparity - objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on right and left retinas, so each eye sees slightly different view of object.
63. Interposition refers to
when an object comes between you and another object it must be closer to you
64. Which of the following principles does the Ponzo illusion use to achieve its effect?
65. The Ames room, in which people are seen to get small or enlarge as they move about, demonstrates that our perception of the world depends strongly on
our perception of the world depends strongly on the assumptions we make about it
66. The structure of the ear that transduces sound vibrations into nerve impulses is the
COCHLEA. hair cells convert physical stimulation into neural impulses that are sent to brain.
67. The correct order in which a sound stimulates the structures in the ear is
eardrum. ossicles. oval window. cochlea.
68. Which of the following best describes how we hear according to place theory?
perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along basilar membrane
69. The two major cues we use to localize sound sources in space are
intensity (loudness) and timing of sounds arriving at each ear are the two cues that contribute to auditory localization
70. Food generally tastes bland when you have a severe head cold because
sense of smell is impaired and odor contributes to flavor
71. The awareness of self, your thoughts, internal sensations and external stimuli is defined as
72. An electroencephalograph is a device that measures
electroencephalograph (EEG) monitors electrical activity of brain over time by means of recording electrodes attatched to surface of scalp
73. The four basic EEG patterns are
delta, beta, alpha and theta
74. The hormone that appears to play a key role in adjusting our biological clocks is
75. Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of
stage 2 sleep
76. Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
heightened muscle tension NOT in rem
77. The most common known sleep disorder is
78. Sleep apnea is characterized by
frequent, reflexive gasping for air
79. The role-playing theory of hypnosis offered by Barber and Spanos suggests that the hypnotized subject
think as they think they are supposed to
81. A drug that depresses central nervous system activity is referred to as
82. The most widely used recreational drug in the United States is
83. A progressive decrease in one's response to a drug with repeated and prolonged use is called
84. John needs to continue to take doses of morphine to avoid withdrawal illness symptoms. John is demonstrating
85. The three basic processes in memory are
encoding, storage, retrival
86. Early-selection theories of attention propose that
info sensored during sensory input
87. Which of the following was NOT a level of processing associated with verbal information as suggested by Craik and Lockhart (1972)?
they were structural, phonemic, and semantic
88. Norm is studying for his law exam. While he is studying, he is trying to think of as many examples as he can to illustrate key ideas. In this case, Norm is using
dual coding theory
89. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model proposes that memory has
shiffrin memory model - incoming information passes through z temporary storage. buffers. sensory and STM then n- LTM and sensory stores
90. Which of the following researchers conducted a classic experiment that demonstrated the brief duration of information in sensory memory?
91. You are absorbed in reading your psychology text when the phone rings. After talking on the phone, you can't remember the last thing you read. This information was lost from ____ memory, because the phone conversation distracted you from ____ the information.
short term / rehearsal
92. Which of the following researchers is known for identifying the capacity of short-term memory as "seven plus or minus two" items?
93. Penfield's studies suggest that long-lost memories can be elicited through electrical stimulation of the brain. This suggests the possibility that forgetting may be a matter of
LTM info stores permanently, remember is an issue of retrivial
94. Unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events are called
95. The process of deciding on whether a memory is based on an external source or an internal source is referred to as
96. The first person to conduct scientific studies of forgetting was
97. Pseudoforgetting is viewed as a function of
lack of attention
98. You have an exam at 8 a.m. and it is now 8 p.m. the night before. You have studied well. The best thing to do now is
sleep all night
99. The concept of motivated forgetting is based largely on the work of which of the following early psychologists?
100. Retrograde amnesia is a type of organic amnesia in which
involves loss of memory that occured prior to amnesia
101. Damage to which of the following is most likely to cause deficits in long-term memory?
102. All of the following theorists EXCEPT ____ encouraged the study of cognitive activity which helped lead to the cognitive revolution in the 1950s.
103. The three essential characteristics of language are that it must be
symbolic, generative, limited number of symbols, and structured
105. If you were to compare adult speech with the speech of infants under 4 months of age you should expect to find that
children use more overextension and underextensions telegraphic speech, MLU and over-regularizations than adults THEY USE MORE MORPHENES
106. Valerie is 18 months old. Her productive vocabulary probably consists of
at 10 months old speech consists of mainly telegraphic speech
107. Fast mapping is
process by which children map a word on to an underlying concept after only one exposure
108. Overextension occurs when
apple meaning fruit say specific thing meaning broad thing
109. Underextension would be evident if a three-year-old child
incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than tis meant to-says doll referring to one specific toy.
110. Metalinguistic awareness refers to
ability to reflect on use of language
111. Evidence from research studies investigating bilingualism suggest that
bilangualism hampers language development and has a negative impact on youngsters educational process. Little empirical support that bilingualism has a serious negative effect
112. Pinker and Bloom (1992) suggest that human language may be a result of evolutionary processes because language allows humans to
acquire information about the worlds second hand
113. According to Skinner, children learn a language
through imitation and reinforcement
114. Noam Chomsky contended that
unreasonable to expect children learn language through imitation children learn rules of language or that inborn propensity to develop language
115. You are having a conversation with your psychology professor and he proposes that your language determines the nature of your thought. Which theorist would agree with his assertions?
Benjamin Lee Whorf - languistic relativity, the hypothesis that ones language determines your thought
116. Functional fixedness refers to
tendency to assume a given item is only useful for task it was designed
117. A methodical, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem is
118. A mental "rule of thumb" for problem solving is referred to as
119. The concept of field dependence-independence highlights the importance of ____ in determining problem-solving skills.
120. The availability heuristic implies that people will ____ the frequency of events that are easy to remember and ____ the frequency of events that are hard to remember.
121. The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to
judge objects and events in terms of how closely they math the prototype of that object or event
122. ____ tests measure general mental ability and ____ tests measure various aspects of people including motives, interests, values and attitudes.
123. The test you are currently taking is an example of what kind of test?
124. The fact that a test is given with uniform procedures in administration and scoring means that the test has been
125. The fact that two people taking the same test in two different places will receive the same instructions, the same questions, and the same time limits means that the test has been
standardization all subjects get same instructions, questions and time
126. If a test yields nearly identical scores when it is retaken after a 2-month interval, the test is said to be
reliability measurement consistency of a test
127. Which of the following represents the strongest test-retest reliability for a test?
correlation coefficient strongest test retest reliability
128. A valid test is one that
measures what its designed to measure
129. Which theorist set out to improve on the measurement of intelligence in adults with an intelligence test with two major innovations; the first was that the score was less dependent on a subject's verbal ability and the second was the use of a deviation intelligence quotient?
Wechsler improve measurement of intelligence in adults
130. Currently, the test that is most commonly used to assess adult intelligence is the
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) most common measure of intelligence in adults
131. Who was originally responsible for developing IQ tests for all ages with both verbal and performance items and with subtest scores?
132. The correlation between IQ scores and performance within a particular occupation is best described as
higher IQ = high status job
133. The vast majority of retarded people are classified as
majority of retarted peole are classified as mildly retarted.
134. The environmental hypothesis suggests that mental retardation is
retardation is an affect of enviornment factors
135. Terman's longitudinal study of gifted individuals has shown that gifted children
Termans study showed that gifted children exhibit better than average physical health, emotional stability, social satisfaction, height weight strength and social maturity
136. Which of the following statements regarding giftedness and achievement in life is most accurate?
the fast majority of gifted children dont grow up live very successfully
137. The consensus among most researchers is that the heritability of intelligence is
heritability of intelligence is 50%
138. The Flynn effect is the finding that
environmental factors level of performance required to earn a score of 100, jumped upward every time tests were reformed
139. According to the reaction range model, children
in good environments have high IQs genetically determined limits on IQ or other traits
140. According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into three major parts. These three