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AP Psych Unit 8 - Clinical Psychology
Unit 12: Abnormal Psychology Myers Psychology for the AP David G. Myers
Terms in this set (79)
Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thought, feelings, or behaviors
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of these key symptoms: Extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Edition, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. Includes: Generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Free floating anxiety (chronic anxiety not associated with any specific situation or object.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An obsessive-compulsive disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
A trauma-related dsiorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that linger four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Positive psychological chances as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause, includes functional neurological symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder
Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder
A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
Illness Anxiety Disorder
A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as a symptom of a disease
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Dissociative Identity Disorders (DID)
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Symptoms includes blackouts. Formerly called multiple personalities disorder.
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes includes depressive disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Major Depressive Disorder
A deoressuve disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
A bipolar and related disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depressing and the overexcited state of mania
characterized by a disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
Social Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety disorder. Persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations.
Anxiety disorder, Fear of being in public
Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorders
Disorders that include obsessive thoughts and/or unwanted behavior. Includes: obsessive-compulsive disorder, hoarding disorder, body dysmorphic disorder.
An obsessive-compulsive disorder, characterized by difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
An obsessive-compulsive disorder, characterized by an obsession with perceived flaw(s) in physical appearance.
A dissociative disorder characterized by a loss of memory for who you are, fugue state includes traveling far from home and the loss of memory
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
a depressive disorder characterisized by extreme temper outbursts at least 3 times a week, must be under 18.
Bipolar and related disorders
Disorders characterized by extreme mood changes, includes bipolar disorder
A symptom of bipolar characterized by elevated mood, overtalkative, overactive, little need for sleep, risky behavior
symptoms of schizophrenia which include addition of inappropriate behavior: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and inappropriate actions
symptoms of schizophrenia which include loss of appropriate behavior: flat affect, catonic state, alogia, avolition
Borderline personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by fear of abandonment, unstable intense relationships, rapid changes in self-identity, impulsive and risky behavior, suicidal threats, and wide mood swings.
Dependent personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by difficulty making everyday decisions, needing others to assume responsibility, difficulty expressing disagreement, difficulty initiating projects, need for support from others.
Paranoid personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by suspicions that others are deceiving him/her, preoccupied with doubts of others trustworthiness, reluctance in confiding in others, holding grudges
Narcissistic personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by exaggerated sense of self-importance, expecting to be recognized as superior, exaggerating achievements, preoccupied with fantasies about success, requiring constant admiration, sense of entitlement, expecting special favors, and taking advantage of others.
Histrionic personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by being uncomfortable in situations which he/she is not the center of attention, inappropriate sexual seductiveness, the use of physical appearance to draw attention, self-dramatization
A personality disorder characterized by avoiding responsibility by claiming forgetfulness, being inefficient on purpose, blaming others, complaining, feeling resentment, fear of authority
Diathesis stress model
In order for an onset of a disorder an individual needs both the genetic and stressor
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Sigmond Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences and the therapists interpretations of them released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
client centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client's growth. Also called person-centered therapy.
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client centered therapy
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actualitiy) to the things they fear or avoid
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant states (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort or exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
sought to reverse patient's catastrophizing beliefs about themselves, their situations and futures using cognitive therapy
offered stress inoculation training: teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations
cognitive behavioral therapy
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to regress toward their average
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
evidence based practice
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an aenesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
invented by Egas Moniz, a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal loves to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma
Recommended textbook explanations
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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Dwayne is acting violently toward his friends and family. A PET scan of his brain may show a. increased frontal lobe activity. b. diminished activity in the amygdala. c. decreased frontal lobe activity. d. a decrease in the size of the hippocampus. e. enlarged ventricles.
Joanna's grandmother told her, "When we were little, we couldn't afford new clothes, so our mother made us dresses out of potato sacks". Joanna's great-grandmother's ability to envision how a potato sack could be used as material for a dress suggests that she was able to overcome a. confirmation bias. b. functional fixedness. c. algorithms. d. divergent thinking. e. belief bias.
Choose the letter of the correct term or concept below to complete the sentence. a. puberty b. asynchrony c. gender identity d. gender role e. identity crisis f. social learning theory g. clique h. conformity i. gender stereotypes j. anorexia nervosa. According to Erik Erikson, adolescents go through a(n) __________, a time of inner conflict in which they worry about their identities.
What principle states that to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a minimum percentage rather than a constant amount? a. Absolute threshold. b. Different threshold. c. Signal detection theory. d. Priming. e. Weber’s law.
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