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Four Ways Public Speaking is a Form of Empowerment

communicating information, influencing peoples attitudes and behaviors, obtaining a job or promotion, achieve positions of leadership

What is public speaking centered on?

the audience

Five Guidelines for Developing Ethical Public Speaking

tell the truth, keep information in perspective, resist personal attacks against others who oppose ideas, give the source for all information, fully credit sources of quotations and paraphrases


to steal and pass off the ideas and words of another as one's own


a person's verbal utterness and non-verbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication


the substance of messages that you send


the process of transforming ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and actions


the process of transforming messages back into ideas and feelings


both the route traveled by the message and the means of transportation


verbal and/or nonverbal responses to a message


the setting

physical context

where communication takes place (environment, distance, seating, time of day)

social context

the nature of the relationship

historical context

the background of previous communication

psychological context

moods and feelings

cultural context

the set of beliefs, values, and norm that are shared by a large group of people


any distraction in the communication process

external noise

the sights, sounds, and other stimuli that may draw attention from the message

internal noise

the thoughts and feelings that interfere with meaning

semantic noise

alternate meanings aroused by speaker's symbols

public speaking apprehension

the level of fear a person experiences when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience

anticipation reaction

the level of an anxiety experienced prior to giving the speech

confrontation reaction

the surge in your anxiety as you begin to speak

adaptation reaction

the decline of anxiety

Three phase process of speaking apprehension

anticipation reaction-confrontation reaction-adaptation reaction

Six Steps in Speech Plan

determine a goal, adapt to your audience, gather information, organize, create visual aids, practice delivery


the process of receiving, interpreting, evaluating, assigning meaning to aural and visual stimuli, and responding


both hearing and seeing. Your ears hear the vocal tones and words and your eyes pick up the non-verbal


using your experiences to interpret the speaker's message


connecting the message to your ideas and feelings

assigning meaning

connecting denotative and connotative meanings to the message


verbally or nonverbally

passive listening

when you make no conscious effort to remember what has been said

active listening

when a person consciously tries to understand and remember what a speaker is saying


listening for new information


examining information and making decisions about your findings.


using your imagination as a way to interpret a message


listening to another's feelings

external barriers

situations outside the speaker and listener in the environment that can interfere with communication

speaker barriers

characteristics of the speaker that interfere with listening

listener barriers

personal attitudes or behaviors that interfere with listening

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