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41 terms

Public Speaking Unit 1

STUDY
PLAY
Four Ways Public Speaking is a Form of Empowerment
communicating information, influencing peoples attitudes and behaviors, obtaining a job or promotion, achieve positions of leadership
What is public speaking centered on?
the audience
Five Guidelines for Developing Ethical Public Speaking
tell the truth, keep information in perspective, resist personal attacks against others who oppose ideas, give the source for all information, fully credit sources of quotations and paraphrases
plagiarism
to steal and pass off the ideas and words of another as one's own
message
a person's verbal utterness and non-verbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication
meaning
the substance of messages that you send
encoding
the process of transforming ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and actions
decoding
the process of transforming messages back into ideas and feelings
channel
both the route traveled by the message and the means of transportation
feedback
verbal and/or nonverbal responses to a message
context
the setting
physical context
where communication takes place (environment, distance, seating, time of day)
social context
the nature of the relationship
historical context
the background of previous communication
psychological context
moods and feelings
cultural context
the set of beliefs, values, and norm that are shared by a large group of people
noise
any distraction in the communication process
external noise
the sights, sounds, and other stimuli that may draw attention from the message
internal noise
the thoughts and feelings that interfere with meaning
semantic noise
alternate meanings aroused by speaker's symbols
public speaking apprehension
the level of fear a person experiences when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience
anticipation reaction
the level of an anxiety experienced prior to giving the speech
confrontation reaction
the surge in your anxiety as you begin to speak
adaptation reaction
the decline of anxiety
Three phase process of speaking apprehension
anticipation reaction-confrontation reaction-adaptation reaction
Six Steps in Speech Plan
determine a goal, adapt to your audience, gather information, organize, create visual aids, practice delivery
listening
the process of receiving, interpreting, evaluating, assigning meaning to aural and visual stimuli, and responding
receiving
both hearing and seeing. Your ears hear the vocal tones and words and your eyes pick up the non-verbal
interpreting
using your experiences to interpret the speaker's message
evaluating
connecting the message to your ideas and feelings
assigning meaning
connecting denotative and connotative meanings to the message
responding
verbally or nonverbally
passive listening
when you make no conscious effort to remember what has been said
active listening
when a person consciously tries to understand and remember what a speaker is saying
informational
listening for new information
critical
examining information and making decisions about your findings.
creative
using your imagination as a way to interpret a message
empathetic
listening to another's feelings
external barriers
situations outside the speaker and listener in the environment that can interfere with communication
speaker barriers
characteristics of the speaker that interfere with listening
listener barriers
personal attitudes or behaviors that interfere with listening