Four Ways Public Speaking is a Form of Empowerment
communicating information, influencing peoples attitudes and behaviors, obtaining a job or promotion, achieve positions of leadership
What is public speaking centered on?
Five Guidelines for Developing Ethical Public Speaking
tell the truth, keep information in perspective, resist personal attacks against others who oppose ideas, give the source for all information, fully credit sources of quotations and paraphrases
to steal and pass off the ideas and words of another as one's own
a person's verbal utterness and non-verbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication
the substance of messages that you send
the process of transforming ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and actions
the process of transforming messages back into ideas and feelings
both the route traveled by the message and the means of transportation
verbal and/or nonverbal responses to a message
where communication takes place (environment, distance, seating, time of day)
the nature of the relationship
the background of previous communication
moods and feelings
the set of beliefs, values, and norm that are shared by a large group of people
any distraction in the communication process
the sights, sounds, and other stimuli that may draw attention from the message
the thoughts and feelings that interfere with meaning
alternate meanings aroused by speaker's symbols
public speaking apprehension
the level of fear a person experiences when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience
the level of an anxiety experienced prior to giving the speech
the surge in your anxiety as you begin to speak
the decline of anxiety
Three phase process of speaking apprehension
anticipation reaction-confrontation reaction-adaptation reaction
Six Steps in Speech Plan
determine a goal, adapt to your audience, gather information, organize, create visual aids, practice delivery
the process of receiving, interpreting, evaluating, assigning meaning to aural and visual stimuli, and responding
both hearing and seeing. Your ears hear the vocal tones and words and your eyes pick up the non-verbal
using your experiences to interpret the speaker's message
connecting the message to your ideas and feelings
connecting denotative and connotative meanings to the message
verbally or nonverbally
when you make no conscious effort to remember what has been said
when a person consciously tries to understand and remember what a speaker is saying
listening for new information
examining information and making decisions about your findings.
using your imagination as a way to interpret a message
listening to another's feelings
situations outside the speaker and listener in the environment that can interfere with communication
characteristics of the speaker that interfere with listening
personal attitudes or behaviors that interfere with listening
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