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Psych 110 test #1
Terms in this set (43)
Six approaches to psychology
1. Psychoanalystic- FREUD used dream analysis to understand the unconscious mind. Much what we do is motivated by the unconscious mind
2. Behavioral- WATON AND SKINNER. we can't base something scientific on imaginary things. We need to base it on something we can observe (we can record behavior/what people say and do). Psychology should only be based on things that can be measured
3. Gestalt- KOHLER AND WERTHHEIMER. The whole is more than the sum of the parts. Your entire life is made of experiences but it is the culmination of these that are more important (these make up your life).
4. Humanistic- MASLOW AND ROGERS. Every person is motivated to reach their fullest potential. People want to develop themselves socially, mentally, etc. We are stopped along the way by the negativity of other people. You will not reach your full potential when you receive negative feedback from other people.
5. Cognitive- thinking, memory, language, problem solving, creativity. Takes direct issue with behavior. These can be studied.
6. Biological/medical/physiological- your personality is based by physical elements (health, diet, brain makeup). Nature vs. nurture/genetics vs. environment
Basic Scientific approach
A theory is never proven. An observation leads to a theory. This theory leads to a testable hypothesis. If no you can modify the theory. If yes, it is necessary to look for more support.
A testable hypothesis must be disconfirmable or falsifiable so that an experiment can either support it or not. Some people might in stead explain one outcome with one explanation and a second outcome with a second explanation and a third with a third and so on. They make to attempt to disprove anything. They just find alternate explanations. It is always easy to offer an explanation of any finding after the fact. The trick in science is to make a prediction and ONLY THEN collect the data to see if it comes out as predicted. .
True experiment vs. correlational approach
-Randomly divided subjects into 2 or more groups
-Manipulate the independent variable
-Measure the dependent variable
EX: mean heart rate of those who drink coffee is 75 bpm and mean heart rate of those who do not drink coffee is 65 bpm. We may infer that coffee caused an increase in heart rate
-Measures 2 variables
-Calculate relationship ex. Pearson's correlation=+.90 (strong)
-Support for hypothesis but cannot infer causality
-Correlation does NOT imply causation
-Usually have 3rd variable/directional problems
Principles of Psychology, philosopher who tried to explain psychology. Stream of consciousness=>wandering of mind. School of functionalism. Believes strongly in consciousness
Found the first school of psychology. Attempt to measure psychoanalytical phenomena. Introspection. School of structuralism (Tichner)
"Origin of Species," theory of evolution, natural selection-mechanism passes on better characteristics, in order for evolution to occur there must be variation in gene pool.
Sir Francis Galton
Hereditary, individual differences in people must run in families. Anthropometric-study humans
Behaviorism: need to be able to measure something. Physical behavior- what they say/do
Careful observation of ones own research to a stimuli
True Experiment (by study guide definition)
We begin a true experiment by randomly dividing subjects into 2 or more groups in order to get groups that are equal on uncontrollable variables such as age, Intelligence, gender and so on. By doing this we have equaled the effect of all such extraneous variables. We have not actually controlled those variables, just evened out any effect they might have on the Dependent variable. If we don't do this, any of those extraneous (third) variables might explain any effect we observe on the dependent variable and we could not infer causality.
We randomly select subjects in some research in order to get a sample that represents a population of interest. This allows us to generalize any findings from the sample to the larger population
Area under a normal curve
Summarizing large amounts of data into a form that is easily interpreted.
Process of using statistical procedures to draw conclusions about the meaning of data
Measures of Central Tendency
a. Mean ( )- average of all of the scores. Responds to extreme scores (outliers) and skews data.
b. Median- midpoint/ 50th percentile. Best measure when data is skewed.
c. Mode- most common score.
Measures of Variability
Measures of Variability- how spread out scores are. Compare different measurements on different scales.
a. Range- differences between the highest and lowest scores
b. Standard Deviation (S)- how close scores are to average. Each score has a deviation. A measure of variability that indicates the average extent to which the scores can be varied from the mean.
c. Variance- a measure that indicates whether the scores are clustered closely around their average or widely spread out. Two measure of variability are the range and the standard deviation.
What does it mean to manipulate a variable?
Duh you idiot
Indicates how far a score deviates from the average in standard units
Correlations have two independent qualities which are...
Magnitude and Direction. -.95 is still a very strong correlation. It just happens to be negative. The weakest correlation would be 0, which is actually no correlation at all.
It is also called a standardized score. Such conversions allow us to compare scores that are on different scales with different means and standard deviations or even different units of measure. For example we might say that since your z score for height is.67 while your z score for weight is .80, you are heavier than you are tall.
Third variable problems w/ correlational method
A weakness in correlational studies caused by the fact that correlation between any two variables may be caused by an unknown third variable.
Directionality problem w/ correlational method
A second weakness of the correlational method. If A and B are correlated, we don't know if changes if A cause change in B, of if changes in B cause changes in A.
Four Lobes of the Cerebral cortex
frontal lobe (responsible for movement, motor control), temporal lobe (by temples. Responsible for hearing), parietal lobe (back center top of head. Bodily sensations- pain hot cold), occipital lobe (lower back of head. Almost entirely vision).
In frontal lobe of the brain. Responsible for speaking.
in temporal lobe, which is responsible for hearing. This area is responsible for language comprehension. Language skills are stored here. A stroke could potentially damage this part of the brain so a person may lose one language they speak.
Primary Visual Cortex (PVC)
in the Occipital lobe, both right and left hemisphere. The geography of a visual field is retained in the PVC.
Visual Association Cortex (VAC)
where items you see are recognized. Associations between what you see and what it is. Damage could result in visual Agnosia, or inability to recognize objects visually.
Central Fissure (Motor and Sensory regions)
Most of the motor cortex is dedicated to facial movement and hands. Sensory cortex is parallel to motor cortex.
when a portion of the brain has been damaged, the function can be moved to an adjacent portion of the brain (AKA movement of hand ability moves to where forehead is usually moved). Sharing of functioning.
Left Hemisphere of brain
Analysis, verbal activity.
Right Hemisphere of brain
Synthesis, putting elements together, perceive as whole, maps, 3D sketch
Lines or boundaries that do not exist
Grouping of elements (Gestalts laws of grouping)
1. Law of Proximity- objects that are close together are perceived as belonging together. AKA we group objects that are close together.
2. Law of similarity- objects that are similar are grouped together.
3. Law of good continuity- we view objects in the way that makes the most continuous sense. (think of sine wave with horizontal line going through it)
4. Law of closure- when pieces are missing, we will connect the dots to make the simplest figure. The reason we can use a dotted line is because the law of closure allows us to see it as a straight line.
5. Law of Common Fate - objects that move together are perceived as belonging together.
Binocular cues (2 eyes)
1. Binocular disparity- allows us to see in 3 dimensions.
leads to stereopsis in the brain, or when your eyes work together, instead of favoring an eye. Fools the brain to create a single mental image.
2. Convergence- when you focus on something close up, in order for you to focus on it, you must bring your eyes close together to see it. The strain of the eyes trying to come closer together.
Monocular cues (1 eye)
1. Motion Parallax - relative motion. Objects in the distance appear to move slower than those that are closer.
2. Elevation above horizon - height on a plane.
3. Interposition - you can tell which object is closer to us by the overlaying of the objects in the distance
4. Linear Perspective - the idea that parallel lines will appear to converge in the distance
5. Aerial Perspective - objects in the distance appear to become hazier
6. Relative brightness
7. Texture Gradient
What is consciousness?
The awareness of being aware. Aware that others are aware that you are aware etc. Two mirrors facing each other.
Rouge and mirror test/melatonin
putting rouge on a childs nose without their knowledge and placing them in front of a mirror to see if the child will laugh at the image or recognize that it is their own image and they will try to get the rouge off of their nose.
Produced when awake but relaxed
Produced when wide awake
The Hypnogogic state
The Hypnogogic state occurs between waking and sleeping.
Manifest content in dreams
The apparent content
Latent content in dreams
The hidden content
Why do we sleep?
1. Repair Theory - We need sleep to repair our bodies mentally and physically.
2. Adaptive Nonresponding- We sleep when we are not able to cope during intervals of danger (humans sleep at night because we do not have good night vision). Evolution makes us tired so that we go to sleep.
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