the layout of the city, its physical form and structure, used to study the city
a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics
the buildup of the central city and the surburban realm-the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city
the people were involved in agriculture, lived near subsistence levels, producing just enough to get by
agricultural production in exess of that with the producer needs for his or her own substinence and that of his or her family in which is then sold for consumption by others. one of two components together with social stratification that able the formation of cites
the differation of society into classes based of wealth, power, production, and prestigehone of the two components along with agricultural surplus which enables the formation of cities
group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others
first urban revolution
the innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths
region of great cities located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; chronologically the first urban hearth, dating to 3500, and which was founded in the Fertile Crescent
Nile River Valley
chronologically, the second urban hearth, dating to 3200 BCE
Indus River Valley
chronologically, the third urban hearth, dating to 220 BCE
Huang He and Wei
rivers in present-day China; it was the confluence of these two rivers where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was established around 1500 BCE
chronologically the fifth and last urban hearth, dating to 200 BCE
literally "high point of the city." the upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes
in ancient Greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaigns, socialized and traded
the internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting
the focal point of ancient Roman life combining the functions of the ancient Greek acropolis and agora
the external locational attributes of a place; its relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places
region adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant
in a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy
central place theory
proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another
the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions of the U.S.
the division of a city into different regions or zones (e.g. residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (e.g. housing or manufacturing)
area of a city with a relatively uniform land use (e.g. industrial or residential ).
central business district (CBD)
the downtown heart of a central city, it is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
the urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older and original city that is surounded by newer suburbs
a subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.
movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual).
concentric zone model
a structual model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center
a term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the U.S. away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (less than 30 years old)
a spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the U.S. It is shown to be a widely dispersed multicentered metropolis consisting of incereasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the CBD
developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene
the very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are conrolled by gangs or drug lords
developed by geographer T.G. ____, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium sized cites of Southeast Asia
unplanned slum development on the margins of cities dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard
legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the U.S., areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use.
a discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominely
rapid change in the racial composition of residential clocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting outmigration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of properties.
the transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
the rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents
homes bought in many American suburbs within intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes, often referred to as McMansions
homes referred to as such because of their "supersize" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburb
unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning
outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs
restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America, they are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as apposed to a formal economy
dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy
a country's largest city--ranking atop the urban hierarchy--most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well.
spaces of consumption
areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry