Early American History

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 70
Terms in this set (70)
1865African American slaves in Texas are emancipated on Juneteenth (June 19th).1866The United States government passes an ordinance to nullify the actions of the Confederate States secession on March 15th, followed by a proclamation of peace between the U.S. and Texas on August 20, 1866.1876Texas Constitution is adopted.1894Oil is discovered in Corsicana, Texas.1924Ma Ferguson is elected as the first female governor of Texas.1950The Supreme Court orders the desegregation of University of Texas Law School in Sweatt v. Painter.1962The Manned Spacecraft Center opens in Houston.The Kingdom of Spain(1519 - 1685, 1690 - 1821)The Kingdom of France(1685 - 1690)The Mexican Federal Republic(1821 - 1836)The Republic of Texas(1836 - 1845)The Confederate States of America(1861 - 1865)The United States of America(1845 - 1861) and (1865 - present)Stephen F. Austin- Early settler. - The "Father of Texas." - Served as Secretary of State for the Republic of Texas. - Persuasive public speaker.Sam Houston- President of the Republic of Texas. - Served as a Senator and Governor of Texas. - Strong military leader, demonstrated perseverance throughout his life.Ann Richards- Female Governor of Texas. - Dogged on issues.Aztec Native Americans (1428 - 1521) Central Mexico TRIBES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA- Connected by roads. - Informal empire. - Ruled itself. - Paid tribute to Tenochtitlan pyramid, which is now Mexico City. - Cultivated maize (corn).Mayan Native Americans (2000 BCE - 1000 BCE) Southern Mexico and Guatemala TRIBES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA- Agriculture and city-centered. - Traded with other Mesoamerican civilizations. - Pyramids for religious ceremonies. - Advanced writing system. - Mathematics.Inca Native Americans (1438 - when Pizarro conquered empire in 1533) Pacific coast of South America. Cuzo was capital. TRIBES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA• The largest tribe. - Agriculture. - Trade. - Architecture. - Government. - Mathematics. - Built roads. - Region based on nature. - Believed in reincarnation.Iroquois Confederacy/Iroquois League (Around 1722) Originally in upstate New York. Eventually, all of the Northeastern US and Eastern Canada. TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA - NORTHEAST- Horticulture. - Hunting and gathering. - Expanded territory through war and conquest. - Expanded tribes by war and conquest. - Most powerful natives in Northeast. - - Kidnapped young men, women and children and raised as Iroquois.Mohican Native Americans (Around 1500s) Above Hudson River TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA - NORTHEAST- Agriculture. - hunting and gathering. - Composed of five tribes in 40 villages. - Lived in longhouses.Cherokee Native Americans (1450 - First Cherokee village) Southeastern US TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA - SOUTHEAST- Agriculture. - Hunting and gathering. - No central government. - Lived in villages or homesteads.Hopi Native Americans (Possibly migrated from Mexico in 500 BCE) Northeastern Arizona TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA - SOUTHWEST- Agriculture, mostly corn. - Peaceful people. - Kept tribes intact on reservations or villages called "pueblos.""Pre-Columbian*** "the time before Christopher Columbus discovery in 1492." *** The cultures of the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans.Pre-Columbian CulturesThe cultures of the Americas before European settlement. Usually includes indigenous cultures as they continued to develop centuries or decades after Columbus' discovery. Olmec civilization: 1st Mesoamerican civilization; invented the long-count calendar, a writing system, remembered for their stone carvings. Teotihuacán civilization (West of Olmec area): monumental pyramids, temples, roads. Toltec civilization: skills in mental work; pottery Mayan civilization: stair-step temples, detailed carvings, advanced writing system, mathematics.Comanche North and central Texas (panhandle to modern day Abilene and even going as far south as Austin).- Nomadic hunters and gatherers. - Lived in Teepees. - Fierce warriors. - Skilled traders. - Used horses.Caddo Eastern Texas and parts of Arkansas and Louisiana.- Farmers - Hunted buffalo - Lived in permanent homes made of wood frames and mud walls.Coahuiltecan Southern Texas (modern day San Antonio to Brownsville to Corpus Christi).- Nomadic hunters and gatherers. - Lived in small huts made of reeds. - Not a single tribe, but an accumulation of separate tribes. - Shared common language or cultural characteristics.Tonkawas Gulf Region- Hunters and gatherers. - Lived in huts and teepees. - Enemies with the Comanche.Karankawa Central and Gulf- Unknown, but likely hunters and gatherers specialized in fishing. - Unknown living. - First Native Americans to come into contact with Europeans, and thus the first to suffer.Christopher Columbus ••• Spanish Exploration •••— Italian explorer. — Discovered the Americas in 1492, while searching for a faster route to India. — Believed "the Earth was round."The Spanish Exploration of the New World ••• Spanish Exploration •••**** The Spanish colonization of the New World led to domination and subjugation of most modern-day Central and South America. **** 3 Goals: • God. • Gold. • Glory. (a.k.a. "Spanish Conquistadors") destroyed and plundered the empires of Mesoamérica by sailing to the New World to claim territory, clear the way for missionaries, and amass huge amounts of gold and silver.Mesoamerica ••• Spanish Exploration •••"Middle America" the region extending from central Mexico through parts of Central America prior to Spanish exploration.Ferdinand Magellan ••• Spanish Exploration •••- Found a route to the East Indies in 1521. - First to circumnavigate the globe.ConquistadorsSpanish explorers who searched for and found expansive amounts of gold in the New World.Northwest Passage (During the French Exploration)A water route from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean, that would've facilitated trade with Asia. The Panamá canal would connect these oceans in Central America. • Began in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; to explore the waterways in search of a route to the Pacific. (led to the exploration of the Great Lakes, the Mississippi River, and its tributaries). - Led by French explorer Jacques Cartier. Founded 3 major colonies: 1. Quebec (present-day Canada); 2. Louisiana; 3. the French West Indies in the Caribbean. (attempted to establish Fort Caroline (in Florida); but quickly attacked and pushed out by the Spanish). French 'traders': began establishing colonies; export furs and fish to Europe. French 'fur trappers': established good relations with Native Americans to facilitate trade. French 'fishers': founded along the ocean and Hudson Bay (the most advantageous geographic locations); lived in the woods.English ExplorationTo find Northwest Passage, discover gold and silver, increased wealth and power. In 1588, the English navy defeated the Spanish Armada in an unexpected victory. - Led by Sir Francis Drake. - Established England as the premier of European naval power. - English found success in colonizing the eastern seaboard.Spanish ArmadaDefeated by the English Navy led by Sir Francis Drake in 1588; established England as the leading European naval power.Dutch Exploration Main purpose: The increase of wealth through trade.- Established colonies in the Caribbean Sea and New Amsterdam in modern-day Manhattan, NY. - Established a strong naval presence to protect their trade: sugar, spices and slaves. - The Dutch quickly developed a massive trading empire, a powerful navy and diverse colonies.New AmsterdamThe most diverse colony which was a Dutch settlement on the southern tip of Manhattan Island (New York).The Columbian ExchangeThe exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the Americas after Christopher Columbus' arrival. - Created new economic opportunities for Europeans. - Facilitated European slavery. - Destruction of indigenous people (smallpox). - Expanded slave trade; due to a plantation economy. - Introduced deadly diseases; smallpox.MercantilismAn economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought. - during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. • American colonies were founded for business and religious freedom. Salutary neglect - mercantilist laws that were put in place, were not enforced. - allowed colonies to flourish. - developed infant industries. - traded differently.Salutary NeglectParliamentary laws that are not strictly enforced.Triangular TradeA system in which goods and slaves were traded among the Americas, Europe, and Africa. - Europeans traveled to Africa to trade manufactured goods, and rum for slaves. - Slaves were sent to the Americas to work in the plantations; they grew cash crops of sugar, tobacco, and cotton. - Cash crops were sold to Europe, and then turned into manufactured and processed goods to sell in Africa and the Americas.European ExplorationThe Spanish exploration of the New World had three main goals: God, Glory, and Gold. Conquistadors sailed to the New World to claim territory in the name of Spain, cleared the way for missionaries, and amassed vast amounts of gold and silver. - The Southwestern United States was most affected by Spanish trade and exploration. - The introduction of horses transformed Native American life; horses were domesticated for agricultural uses and hunting. - Many native populations were decimated or eradicated due to military conquests and diseases (smallpox). - Spanish colonies exploited native labor to create projects for the benefit of European rulers. - Spain developed a centralized government for its colonies. - Land was governed by encomiendas; grants from the crown giving the receivers the right to extract as much wealth for themselves from a specific area as possible, either through native labor or through the payment of tributes. - Eventually, the land turned into into villages, towns, and cities. - The heads of each town; alcaldes, had to get permission from the crown before making any changes. - Money-gathering efforts focused on mining and the extraction of metals and jewels. Difficulties resulted in shifting to the cultivation of cash crops (sugar). - In dry areas, the Spanish built acequias; shared waterways to irrigate the fields. - European trade introduced horses, firearms, gun powder, and wheat. Alcohol was introduced to the New World, and chocolate, tobacco, and potatoes were introduced to Europe. - In order to protect their new territory, the Spanish built presidios; fortified bases that were used to keep out hostile Natives, settlers from other countries, and pirates, in each colony.Three primary conquistadors who explored the region of what is now TexasAlonso Alvarez de Pineda: - A Spanish explorer. - Mapped the coast of Texas as well as surrounding coastlines in 1519. - His maps are the first records of Texas history. Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca: - First European explorer to search the lands of Texas, and look for "Cibola;" the Seven Cities of Gold. - Apart of the Narvaez expedition; began in 1527. - Wandered the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico in search of Mexico City. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado: - Began his expedition to find the "Seven Cities of Gold," on February 23, 1540. - Explored large areas of modern day Arizona, New México, Oklahoma, and Texas. - Paved the way for further European influence in Texas lands.Encomiendasgrants from the crown giving the receivers the right to extract as much wealth for themselves from a specific area as possible, either through native labor or through the payment of tributes.AlcaldesThe head of a town in the Spanish territory in the New World.AcequiasShared waterways to irrigate agriculture (fields) in Spanish territories of the New World.PresidiosFortified bases built by the Spanish in the New World. They were used to keep out hostile Natives, settlers from other countries, and pirates.First Permanent Colony- Fort St. Louis; 1st permanent colony in Texas, was founded in 1685 by French explorer Sieur de la Salle, who established a French claim to east Texas lands. - Abandoned in 1688. - Spurred Spanish exploration and colonization of Texas to solidify land claims against the French. - The French colony that was located at the mouth of the Mississippi, was seen as a threat to the Spanish because of the close proximity of the settlements to Texas lands.Sieur de La SalleA French explorer who founded the first permanent colony in Texas, Fort St. Louis, in 1685.Francisco Vasquez de CoronadoA conquistadore who searched for the mythical "Seven Cities of Gold" in 1540. Expedition failed but did pave the way for future European influence in Texas lands.Alonso Alvarez de PinedaA Spanish explorer who, in 1519, mapped the coast of Texas as well as surrounding coastlines.Alvar Nunez Cabeza de VacaA Spanish explorer who searched the southwest territory of what is now the US, in a search for the Seven Cities of Gold.OlmecThe first Meso-American civilization.ToltecA civilization known for skill in metal work and pottery.Jacques CartierA French explorer who was the first to search for a water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific.TeotihuacánA civilization known for pyramids, temples and roads.