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1st step of information processing/memory storage; how we get information into our brain; input is translated into something meaningful to be remembered; encoded meaning
2nd step of information processing/memory storage; retaining and storing info for long periods of time
3rd step of information processing/memory storage; getting the memory back out; retrieving the memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin's 3-stage memory model; 1. info is recorded as sensory memory, 2. processed into short-term memory, 3. encoded for long-term memory
memory that holds a few items briefly before they are stored or forgotten; includes some important thoughts; can remember up to 7 things (ex. phone numbers)
the permanent and limitless storehouse of memory; includes a few very important, enduring thoughts
how we rehearse and manipulate info in temporary storage; integrates long and short term memory
unconscious, automatic encoding of space, time, and frequency; (ex. remembering where you ate yesterday)
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort; (ex. studying - what you're doing right now)
the conscious repetition of information; used to encode for storage; as it increases, re-learning time decreases
the tendency for study that is SPACED over longer periods of time to yield better results than studying the night before
serial position effect
tendency to remember the first and last items better than the rest; remember things because of their POSITION
method of loci
Greek mnemonic device; scholars would imagine themselves in different LOCations and associated each place with an image of the to-be-remembered topic
associating an idea with a peg word; (ex. one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree...I want to remember to buy carrots at the store, so I image a carrot-flavored bun.)
organizing items into meaningful, familiar categories; occurs automatically; (it's easier to remember 1492 and 1812 instead of 1,4,9,2,1,8,1,2,)
creating words or setences from the first letters of words to be remembered (ex. ROY G. BIV)
a photographIC memory lasting for a few tenths of a second; everyone has it; discovered by Sperling
a momentary audio memory of a sound; sounds, words, and ECHOES can be remembered within 3 to 4 seconds, even if attention is elsewhere
LTP; proLONGed strengthening of POTENTIAL neuron firing; by stimulating certain neural connections repeated, they become more efficient at releasing neurotransmitters; neural basis for learning and memory
learning still occurs, but the person doesn't remember what they have learned; implied memories; also called procedural memory (ex. amnesia patient plays golf a lot and gets good at it, but can't remember ever playing golf)
memory of facts that one can consciously known and declare; also known as declarative memory; one can EXPLICITLY declare that they remember the experience or fact
the neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories for storage; (ex. We don't remember our first 3 years because the hippocampus is the last brain structure to develop, yet we still remember how to crawl and eat and breathe)
processing site for implicit memories; memories for skills and conditioned associations are kept here
stores implicit emotional memories; damage to this brain area prevents one from learning to fear
a memory measure that assess the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
identifying the strands that lead to a specific memory held in storage; prime the mind to get the specific details out
"I've seen this before"; cues from your current situation my subconsciously trigger retrieval of past memories
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
when stuff you learned in the past interferes with what you're learning now (ex. Grandma can never be a computer PRO because she thinks the computer is an old typewriter.)
when new information makes it harder to remember old information; (ex. There are so many new styles out nowadays that I can't remember the old RETRO clothing styles!)
in Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the idea that our memory systems self-censor painful memories; most people believe it, but it's not true; instead, motivated forgetting is what really occurs
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event (ex. How fast were the cars going when they SMASHED into eachother?)
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