49 terms

Chapter 4 The Rock Cycle

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Terms in this set (...)

rock
mixture of one or more minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other natural materials; can be igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary
2 ways to classify a metamorphic rock -
Foliated/Non foliated
3 ways to classify a sed. rock
Organic, chemical, or detrital
4 things that make up a rock
Organic matter, minerals, volcanic glass, and mineraloids
Name of metamorphic rock that's used in sculptures and easily polished -
Marble
Name of met. rock with alternating bands of light and dark colors
gneiss
Sed. rock that can be a chemical or organic depending on what it contains
limestone
2 processes needed for a metamorphic rock
Heat/pressure
4 processes needed for a sed. rock
Weathering/erosion, comapction/cementation
Rock becoems _______ sediments after weathering and erosion
sediments
2 processes needed to undergo to become igneous
melting and cooling
Rock becomes ________ between melting and cooling
magma
How rocks differ from minerals
Rocks are organic things, also a mixture of materials. Minerals are inorganic things, have a definite chemical composition
Processes involved in the rock cycle
Heat, pressure, erosion, weathering, cooling, melting, cementation, compaction
Matter including rocks, is neither _____ nor _____.
created, destroyed
What is the driving force behind the rock cycle?
Plate tectonics
Type of rock that rises towards earth's surface and erupts form a volcano
Igneous
Rock w/ no visible mineral grains
Volcanic glass
What size crystals or mineral grains form from lava that cools quickly
small
2 types of igneous rock
Intrusive/Extrusive
Name an igneous rock formed inside Earth
granite, diorite, gabbro
Name an igneous rock formed on/near earth's surface
obsidian, basalt, andesite, pumice, rhyolite, and scoria.
metamorphic rock
rocks formed by changes in temp. and pressure or the presence of hot, watery fluids
foliated rock (+ 2 ex.)
a type of metamorphic rock in which mineral grains flatten and line up in parallel layers
*slate - used around pools and patios
*gneiss
coal
a type of organic sedimentary rock formed from the peices of dead plants
nonfoliated rock (2 examples)
type of metamorphic rock in which mineral grains grow and rearrange but don't form layers
*quartzite
*marble - artists use this to sculpt
chalk
an organic sed. rock made of microscopic shells
detrital rocks
sedimentary rocks such as sandstone that are formed from broken fragments of other rocks
chemical rocks
sed. rocks such as halite that are formed when minerals come out of solution
stacked rocks
sed. rock in which the older rocks, unless disrupted, are on the bottom
sedimentary rocks
rocks formed when sediments are pressed and cemented together or when minerals form from solutions
fossil-rich limestone
type of organic sedimentary rock made of the mineral calcite and formed largely from the shells of ocean animals
granite
light-colored igneous rocks with a lower density than basaltic rocks
metamorphic rocks
rocks formed by changes in heat and pressure or the presence of hot, watery fluids
rock cycle
model illustrates the processes that create and change rocks
cementation
process by which large sediments are glued together by dissolved minerals to form rock
basaltic
-dense, dark-colored igneous rock
extrusive
-igneous rocks formed on or near earth's surface
-lava cools quickly because exposed to air and water
-small mineral grains
sediments
bits of weathered rock, minerals, grains, plants, and animals that have been eroded
igneous rocks
formed when hot magma cools and hardens inside of earth or on earth's surface. high temp and pressure is needed
compaction
process by which sediments are pressed together to form rock; pressure from rock layers above press down on lower layers
intrusive
-igneous rocks formed below earth's surface
-these rocks are only found @ surface of earth after erosion
-large mineral grains because magma cools slowly
foliated
layered metamorphic rocks
nonfoliated
metamorphic rocks that don't have layers
Materials that make up sediments
rock fragments, mineral grains, bits of shell, and plant/animal remains
organic rock
made from once-living things
how a metamorphic rock forms
heat -
heat and pressure cause rock to melt and magma to form. mineral grains change by dissolving and recrystallizing.
pressure -
w/ increasing heat and pressure, rocks can change into other types of rock
andesiste
-igneous rock, composition of magma between basaltic and granitic
granitic
-light colored, low density igneous rocks