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KINE 305 - Ch. 5

STUDY
PLAY
generic
a name that specifies a particular chemical but not a particular brand
Provigil (modafinil)
a medication used to treat narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and daytime sleepiness associated with sleep apnea
Nuvigil (armodafinil)
a longer-lasting version of modafinil, approved to treat the same conditions
placebo
an inactive drug
double-blind procedure
experiment in which neither the doctor nor the patient knows which drug is being used
dose-response curve
a graph comparing the size of response to the amount of drug
ataxia
uncoordinated walking
comatose
unconscious and unable to be aroused
ED 50
effective dose for half of the animals tested
LD 50
lethal dose for half of the animals tested
therapeutic index (TI)
ratio of LD 50 to ED 50
safety margin
dosage difference between an acceptable level of effectiveness and the lowest toxic dose
side effects
unintended effects that accompany therapeutic effects
potency
measured by the amount of drug required to produce an effect
time course
timing of the onset, duration, and termination of a drug's effect
cumulative effects
effects of giving multiple doses of the same drug
lipid solubility
tendency of a chemical to dissolve in fat, as opposed to water
intravenous
injection directly into a vein
subcutaneous
injection under the skin
intramuscular
injection into a muscle
metabolite
product of enzyme action on a drug
active metabolites
metabolites that have drug actions of their own
prodrugs
drugs that are inactive until acted on by enzymes in the body
drug disposition tolerance
tolerance caused by more rapid elimination of the drug
behavioral tolerance
tolerance caused by learned adaptation to the drug
pharmacodynamic tolerance
tolerance caused by altered nervous system sensitivity