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all transactions where buyer intends to consume product
personal, family, household


purchase products to resell to ULTIMATE customers
stores, direct selling, direct marketing, vending machines
critical link b/w producers & consumers

general merchandise retailers

variety of product lines, considerable depth

department stores

wide product mixes, employ 25+ ppl
service oriented!
most sales from apparel, accessories, cosmetics
gen merch store

discount stores

self-service, BRAND names & private brands at low P
lower margins for more volume
appliances, housewares, clothes, toys
general merch store

convenience store

small self-service store, open long hrs, narrow assortment of products
primary product is "convenience"


large, self-service stores, food & non-food
lower P than grocery stores


carry food & non-food products
4x bigger than supermarkets
combo of discount stores & supermarkets "features"


combine supermarket & discount store shopping in 1 location
larger than superstores
NOT successful in U.S.

warehouse clubs

members only
to keep P down, they have few services, lack ambience, aisles for forklifts

warehouse showrooms

retail facilities in large, low-cost buildings
min services
costs are lower b/c some marketing functions are shifted to consumer

specialty retailer

narrow product mix, deep product lines

traditional specialty retailer

have high costs in proportion to sales, satisfying customers may mean carrying products w/ low turnover

category killers

large specialty store concentrating on a major product category & competing for low P & product availability

off-price retailers

buy mfr's seconds, overruns, returns, & off-season production runs @ below-WHOLESALE P
sell to consumer @ deep discounts
estb. l-t relationships w/ suppliers to ensure regular flow

consumer purchases

result of social influences & psych factors

neighborhood shopping centers

small convenience & specialty stores.
consider their target market to be consumers w/in 10 min
product mixes are ESSENTIAL products

community shopping centers

include 1-2 department stores, several specialty & convenience stores
wide range of product mix & deep product lines

regional shopping centers

have the largest department stores, extensive product mixes, deep product lines
150K+ consumers in their target markets
ppl drive distance to find products (mall)

supperregional shopping centers

widest & deepest product mixes
have skating rinks, amusement centers, upscale restaurants

lifestyle shopping center

open-air shopping center (oak brook)
upscale dining, specialty, entertainment stores
architecture is important

power shopping centers

combine OFF-PRICE stores & SMALL stores w/ CATEGORY KILLERS

factory outlet malls

discount & factory outlet stores, want to avoid conflict w/ retailers of their products

retail positioning

i.d.-ing an unserved or underserved market segment & serving it, so it distinguishes retailer fin the mind of the consumers


physical element in a store's design that appeal to consumers' emotions
encourages buying

category management

managing group of similar, substitutable products made by diff mfrs

direct marketing

use telephone& non-personal media to communicate product
then, the consumer buys it through mail, telephone, or Internet

direct-response marketing

when retailer advertises a product & makes it available through mail or telephone

direct selling

marketing of products to ultimate consumers through face-to-face sales presentations


right to sell products for $
1) more successful than independent outlets
2) start a business w/ limited capital, and benefit from others' business experience
1) franchiser can dictate
2) franchisee gives up some control

merchant wholesalers

independent businesses, assume risks w/ ownership, buy & resell to other wholesalers

general-merchandise wholesaler

carry wide product mix but limited depth w/in product lines

general-line wholesalers

carry few products but extensive assortment of products

specialty-line wholesalers

narrowest range of products, usually single product line

rack jobbers

full-service, specialty-line wholesalers that own and maintain display racks in supermarkets, etc.

limited-service wholesaler

provide few services, take title to merchandise but don't deliver, grant credit, etc.

cash-and-carry wholesaler

(limited-service wholesaler)
intermediaries pay cash and do their own transportation

truck wholesalers

(limited-service wholesaler)
transport limited line of products directly to costumer

drop shippers

(limited-service wholesaler)
take title to goods but NEVER actually take possession of products

mail-order wholesalers

(limited-service wholesaler)
use catalogs instead of salesforce


represent either buyers/sellers on a permanent basis


intermediaries temporarily employed by buyers or sellers

manufacturer's agents

independent intermediaries who rep 2+ sellers

sales branches

mfr-owned intermediaries that sell products & provides support to mfr's salesforce

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