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signs & symbols converted by receiver
the meaning that the receiver decodes is seldom EXACTLY the same as the marketer intended


anything that reduces comm's clarity & accuracy

channel capacity

the limit of info you can handle


build & maintains favorable relationships by informing & persuading to accept your products

primary demand

demand for PRODUCT CATEGORY instead of for a specific brand of a product

pioneer promotion

inform about the product
what it does, how it's used, etc.

selective demand

demand for specific brand
P discounts, free samples, sweepstakes, all used to stimulate this type of demand!


cost of retaining loyal customers is less than acquiring new ones

promotion mix

advertising, personal selling, PR, sales promotion


cost per person could be very low
diff. to measure effects of advert on sales
less persuasive impact than personal selling

personal selling

paid, personal comm
MOST used in B2B
cost of reaching 1 person is considerably more...
better for small geo area

sales promotion

direct inducement to offer incentive for the product
ex: sweepstakes, rebates, games, etc.


PRODUCER promotes the product to the next institution down the marketing channel


FIRM promotes directly to consumer w/ intention of developing strong consumer demand for the products


important for services
going electronic!

buzz marketing

incite publicity

product placement

strategic location of products w/in media

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