signs & symbols converted by receiver
the meaning that the receiver decodes is seldom EXACTLY the same as the marketer intended
anything that reduces comm's clarity & accuracy
the limit of info you can handle
build & maintains favorable relationships by informing & persuading to accept your products
demand for PRODUCT CATEGORY instead of for a specific brand of a product
inform about the product
what it does, how it's used, etc.
demand for specific brand
P discounts, free samples, sweepstakes, all used to stimulate this type of demand!
cost of retaining loyal customers is less than acquiring new ones
advertising, personal selling, PR, sales promotion
cost per person could be very low
diff. to measure effects of advert on sales
less persuasive impact than personal selling
paid, personal comm
MOST used in B2B
cost of reaching 1 person is considerably more...
better for small geo area
direct inducement to offer incentive for the product
ex: sweepstakes, rebates, games, etc.
PRODUCER promotes the product to the next institution down the marketing channel
FIRM promotes directly to consumer w/ intention of developing strong consumer demand for the products
important for services
strategic location of products w/in media
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