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Social Work Licensing Exam
Terms in this set (245)
Worked with extended family systems, where rational processes are applied to better understand relationships (current and intergenerational) and to maximize self-differentiation. Discussed triangulation and the dysfunction can come through several generations. Here the therapist is a coach. Remember, often used in this approach are genograms and ecomaps. Psychodynamic family therapy: resolution of problems should include intrapsychic exploration & resolution of unconscious object-relationships internalized from early parent-child relationships.
Classical model of conditions: relationship between a stimulus and a response is unlearned or prewired, emphasis on antecedents. (drooling dog)
Operant model of conditions: learning and reinforcement, emphasis on consequences. (Rat & treat lever)
(Little or no free will). The assumption that unconscious cause lies behind every mental process is known as: primary process thinking, secondary process thinking, psychic determinism, consensual validation. Psychodynamic theory is predicated on the assumption that there is an unconscious which informs one's life. Psychic determinism - the idea that personality and behavior are determined more by psychological factors than by biological conditions or current life effects.
o ID -
The only component of personality that is around from birth. Entirely unconscious and includes instinctive & primitive behaviors. Source of all psychic energy, the primary component of personality. Strives for the immediate gratification of desires.
o Ego -
responsible for dealing with reality. Ensures that impulses can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. Functions in the conscious, preconscious & unconscious mind. Based on the reality principle - strives to satisfy the id's desires realistically & appropriately.
o Superego -
is our sense of right & wrong. Provides guidelines for making judgment. Emerges around age 5. Guilt is here.
Two parts of the superego-
The ego ideal: includes the rules & standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental & other authority figures. The conscience: includes info about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are usually forbidden & lead to bad consequences.
o Ego strength -
the ego's ability to function, despite dueling forces.
o Psychosocial development
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital
birth - 1 year. Most of the world is interacted with by the mouth. Issues can occur during weaning.
1-3 years old. Primary focus is controlling the bladder & bowel movements. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
3-6 years old. Child starts to discover the differences between male & females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother's affections. The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. However, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. The term Electra complex has been used to describe a similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud, however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy. Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent. For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage.
6-12, the latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
12+ source of satisfaction: Genitals. Outcome - sexuality become focused in mature, genital love and adult satisfaction.
o Primary process thinking:
is the language of the unconscious (e.g. slips of tongue, dreams, associations, jokes and child's language and thought.
• Ego Psychology (psychodynamic theory):
o Credited to the work of Ana Freud, Erikson and others
in therapeutic context, strong emotions are discussed in regard to the issue and catharsis (i.e., the release of tension in a protected setting) is achieved.
therapist directly or indirectly influences the client to a plan of action.
Clarification and interpretation:
the therapist pinpoints significant themes, etc. Patterns and/or trends of thinking are highlighted. In interpretation you make inferences based on what the therapist hears and believes to be the situation.
• Gestalt therapies -
German for the world "whole." Emphasize the current experiences of the client in the here and now. Patient learns to recognize their needs and how the drive to satisfy those needs may influence their behavior. Gestalt theory argues that behavior is more than the sum of its parts. o Founder is Fritz Perls: and the only real time is the present, individual must take responsibility for all aspects of his/her life. o Whole is greater and different from the sum of the parts. o Focus is on the here and now with immediate awareness of personal experiences o In gestalt therapy, unexpressed guilt is viewed as "unfinished business" and the client needs to re-address this (i.e., can use empty chair, psychodrama).
• Object relations Theory ( a human growth and development theory)
o This is more of a psycho-social/human development approach introduced by Mahler and Associates. o According to Mahler, a child must separate and individuate so that he/she can move from being a part of the other/child unit to being a member of a family. o Separation occurs when a child differentiates or disengages from the mother. o The child often uses transitional objects such as a teddy bear to separate from the mother. o Individuation occurs when the child develops an inner representation of the mother, ability to test reality, a sense of time and an awareness of the existence of other individuals as separate and different from him/her. Rapprochement (have to know where it is, but doesn't have to have it with you anymore) is the last phase prior to the completion of individuation.
• Client-Centered Theory (a human relations theory)
o Carl Rogers is noted as the founder o This model lack authoritative rigidity and dogma. Most of its premises were made ex post facto. o It is based on relationship therapy and the functional school of social casework. o Basic goal of therapy is to "release an already existing capacity for self-actualization in a potentially competent individual" o On a person-environment continuum, this model is closest to the person o Techniques used are often considered non-directive (passive, nonjudgmental listening), reflective (active listening); however, the therapist is seen as an active listener and reinterprets statements made by the client.
• Developmental stages -
middle latency, late latency, early latency, the phallic stage:
• Functional Theory:
(a problem solving focus with free will) o Two pioneers of this theory were Jesse Taft and Virginia Robinson. Attributed to the School of SW in PA and influenced the work of Mead, Dewey & Rank. This model was presented in contrast to the diagnostic school of thought (which was primarily psychoanalytic). o This model highlights the importance of agency function in the helping process. o Diagnosis is related to the use of services and is expected to change as client needs change. o Time phases in SW process are important (beginning, middle and end). o Agency function gives focus, content and legitimacy to services provided. It is the place where the interests of society and the individual join. o Clients are active in this model & are capable of individual choice.
• Systems Theory:
This analysis is taken primarily from the work of Pincus & Minahan and Garvin o Value Based: Two primary values Society has the obligation to ensure that people have access to resources and opportunity When providing resources dignity and individuality should be obtained. o Assumptions: General systems theory involves goal oriented planned change The small group/individual is seen as an organic entity with boundaries, purposes and mechanisms for attaining change and maintaining stability. Whatever happens to one component of a system directly affects another.
Four systems are identified in which the social worker must be involved:
• Change agent system: includes the change agent and others within the agency or employment organization • Client system: people who sanction or request services, the expected beneficiaries of the service and those who have a working agreement with the change agent. • Target system: people or things that need to be changed to accomplish goals. • Action system: change agent and individuals that help accomplish change Worker use techniques of educating, advocacy, facilitation and intervention
• Ecological Systems Perspective
o This is the study of relations between the organism and the environment. This constitutes transactional exchanges with each exchange affecting the other. o This is considered a good model to use to address minority concerns since it addresses the person in his/her cultural environment. o Must include the community in every part of the assessment. o Adaption and the goodness of fit with the environment must be established o Person environment relationship can either be positive or negative. o Clients are seen as active and PRIMARY prevention strategies are stressed between clients, life transitions, interpersonal processes and environmental properties. o This approach is often now taught in schools of social work as an alternative or addition to systems theory. It encouraged the PIE evaluation system than DSM IV.
• Family Therapy / Family Systems
o Treatment is focused toward a family and or group and is the core of treatment. o Treatment is not dependent on all members attending the treatment session(s). o General system theory and communication theory forms the core of family therapy. o Dysfunction is seen as an interpersonal process, not based in within the individual. o Supports the principle when there is a system; everything functions together. Once one part of a system changes, the other parts will also change. o In the 1970's and 1980's, focus moved from differentiation within the family to more integration of the family. o From a system framework, family therapists are expected to be "somewhat" objective observers that help to interpret and reframe the situation. o Gender differences are not formally acknowledged or considered in treatment. "Family therapy from a systems perspective does not acknowledge the social definitions of role expectation placed by the society and cultural environment." o Family therapy is not best method of treatment if: key family members are unavailable, members are psychotic or suffer from mental illness not allowing change, and if family is so fragile that exploration could result in relationship termination. o Videotape and audiotaping is often used. o Some family therapist's practice prescribing the symptom, in this paradoxical view a therapeutic double bind is created and the client will generally rebel and stop the behavior. o In family therapy, the goal is homeostasis.
• Social Learning Theory
o Generally considered the work of Albert Bandura - focus on motivational needs, drives and impulses and cognitions toward action or change - are not enough. We are social creatures and therefore must take into account social environment. Learning takes place through observation and reinforcement in the social system. Therefore, from this perspective, opposites would never attract. Reinforcement is key to continuing behavior. Feedback is important with self-evaluative comments. Intermittent reinforcement is the most powerful way to maintain a behavior.
o Classical model of conditions:
Pavlov, relationship between a stimulus and a response is unlearned or prewired, emphasis on antecedents.
o Operant model of conditions:
Skinner, learning and reinforcement, emphasis on consequences.
• Behavior Therapy / Modification
o Behavioral treatment is the most empirical of all treatment methods, relying heavily on research-based treatment that alters observable behaviors. o Became popular in the 1960's getting its roots from psychology and social psychology. Popularity came out of the need to prove the effectiveness of clinical practice. o Uses a quantitative response as opposed to a qualitative one to established effectiveness. o Behavior modification generally uses Nomothetic Methodology. Here an important emphasis is placed on: scientific protocol and technique; hypotheses are tested under strict rules and guidelines; tools of measurement are clearly defined; journals, diaries, homework, and participant observations are often used.
o Continuum of Behavior theorists
Applied behavioral analysis (Skinner) ----------- Cognitive behavior modification (Wolpe, Beck) o Work of B.F. Skinner "Knowledge is behavior, and thus all knowledge can be measured" thorough behavior. o Work of John Wolpe& others emphasizes the thoughts that seem to relate to the troublesome reaction
behavior increase or strengthen behavior
behavior decrease or weaken behavior
Negative "-" =
to take something away, avoid or subtract
Positive "+" =
to add/give something, add
(to support) and reinforcement (behavior strengthen or increase) are two word that lookalike but have two different meanings
The same response is given to various (possibly unrelated) stimuli.
(e.g. a dog with a shock collar to stop the dog from barking so much)
• Crisis Intervention
o Time limited crisis intervention - is not identical to crisis theory. o This model deals with the crisis period and restoring equilibrium for the client. This model deals with "healthy people falling apart" and with or without help the situation will resolve for better or for worse. o Crisis is different from brief treatment because in brief treatment the focus is on learning new treatment strategies to move the client beyond equilibrium.
o Crisis by definition is
short-term and overwhelming and involves a disruption of an individual's normal and stable state where the usual methods of coping & problem solving do not work.
o Crisis intervention is generally characterized by:
Here & now orientation, Time limited course (typically 1-12 sessions), A view of the clients behavior as understandable (rather than a pathological) reaction to stress, The therapist is very active and directive.
Two types of crisis situations are identified:
those precipitated by the normal life course (i.e., school entry, retirement and natural death), or those brought by an accident or hazardous events Crisis intervention is strongly interdisciplinary and is believed to be the future in unifying mental health professionals from all disciplines.
o Social Work Practice Principles for Crisis Intervention
Immediate intervention as cannot endure crisis for long periods of time. Action. Be active in helping, exploring and resolving. Limited goals. Focus only on goals related to the crisis. Build hope & expectations. Resolution is possible. Foster support because lack of it can lead to an adjustment reaction. Focus on resolution of solving the problem underlying the crisis. Build self-image and self-confidence. Focus on strengths. Build self-reliance and discourage complete support ton professional, spiritual or family/friend support system.
The group worker's role in an educational group is
to encourage group problem solving and facilitate discussion. It would not be useful to move toward insight-based techniques such as reflection which could be seen by group members as threatening, and a violation of their understanding of the group's purpose.
• Integrating a new member into a group is always
problematic since the individual is likely to be in a somewhat different place emotionally, and has not had the shared group experiences that characterize group life.
The worker's task when integrating a new member is
to mediate the adolescent's entry into the group in a way that helps the youth, while not subtly encouraging or allowing the group to lose its focus. Nothing in the question suggests acting out behavior is a problem. The worker would to seek to protect the group member, but would rather use group behavior as a learning tool.
• As in all therapeutic group situations, the focus of intervention is
what is happening in the relationship at the moment.
• When working within a group, always
"bring it back" to the group to address unless it involves mandatory reporting or a danger to self or others (i.e. a client is continually late for group, let the group address this. The power is with the group.
o The settlement houses: the first settlement house
was Toynbee Hall, established in London in 1884.
o Jane Addams founded
the Hull House, the first recognized settlement house in America.
o The modern period of group work as we know it today began
in the 1930's.
o Social conversation:
these groups are rarely therapeutic. Professionals can use this to learn more about each other. This is sometimes referred to as a TEAM group or a team SUPPORT group.
The "object" is generally to develop behaviors and responses in-group members that are socially responsible. These groups generally require a skilled-trained leader.
o Recreation skill building:
combines the recreational and skill building groups.
all of these groups teach specialized skills and knowledge and are led by a professional person with expertise in that area. Groups are often larger.
this movement has become very popular over the years. They generally are self-directed and "cause" oriented. Examples include: AA
o Problem solving & decision making:
there is a formal leader and each member has an interest and/or stake in the group
o Sensitivity and encounter training groups:
this refers to a group experience where people are encouraged to relate to each other on an inter-personal basis and self-disclosure is required. There are three stages in these groups: 1. unfreezing, 2. Change, and 3. refreezing. The goal of these groups is to improve interpersonal awareness.
o Therapy groups:
group members often have emotional or personal problems. Similar to individual therapy, individuals explore personal problems in relation to the group. Several advantages over individual therapy are that research supports that it is easier to change attitudes in a group setting; members can interchange roles and experience helping the other person; and, it saves on costs.
o For all groups: the focus of all groups is generally
"here and now"
o Close-ended groups can
function more effectively because the membership is constant and there is a specific limited time frame.
o Leadership styles:
authoritative has absolute power. Democratic seeks the maximum involvement of the participants. Laissez faire group leaders minimally participate and group members function on their own.
o The more cohesive a group,
the more likely it is to conform to group norms. As groups process-cohesion increases. Yalom believes that increasing self-disclosure and increased group cohesion are linked.
o Group size:
smaller the group, the more individual satisfaction noted. Small groups average 5 to seven members. The larger the group, the more successful in solving complex problems. Odd numbers of members are most effective for enhancing communication.
Ideal group size
o Role complementarity:
Role complementarity occurs when two or more people have different roles that serve to preserve a type of interaction and relationship over time. For example, and over responsible mother and an irresponsible son.
o pseudo mutuality:
When members all agree that their behavior is for the benefit of all equally and the opposite is actually true, this is pseudo-mutuality.
o family homeostasis:
Homeostasis involves symptoms tending to seek and maintain the same level of functioning as previously experienced. If one member starts to get better, another may begin to exhibit symptoms to maintain the family's previous level of functioning.
o Family Fusion:
Fusion involves an agreement among members that there will be no differentiation and every member will stay emotionally involved in all aspects of the family interaction.
• Tricyclic's -
class of medication for depression
tends not to be associated with major disorders since it requires a planned response to some undesirable activity that the client would like to avoid. Voluntary produce symptoms in presence of exaggerated voluntary physical symptoms, there is an obvious recognizable goal.
refusal to accept reality or fact, acting as if a painful event, thought or event did not exist. Some theories holds that people suffering from paranoid personality disorder deny their own unacceptable thoughts or feelings and project these on others.
the reversion to an earlier stage of development.
Acting out -
performing an extreme behavior in order to express thoughts or feelings the person is incapable of otherwise expressing. Defensive acting out is not synonymous with "bad behavior" because it requires evidence that the behavior is related to emotional conflicts.
when a person loses track of time or a person, and instead finds another representation of themselves to continue with the moment.
a lesser form of dissociation, whereas part of oneself is separated from awareness of other parts and behaving as if one had a separate set of values.
The misattribution of a person's undesired thoughts, feelings or impulses onto another person who does not have those thoughts, feelings, or impulses.
Reaction formation -
converting of unwanted or dangerous thoughts, feelings or impulses into their opposite. For example, a woman who is very unhappy with her boss & job will become overly kind & generous and may express a desire to stay at the job forever. Reaction formation occurs when unacceptable thoughts or impulses are expressed by their opposites. It is an immature defense and usually causes problems for the individual since the underlying aggression is never addressed.
the unconscious blocking of unacceptable thoughts, feelings or impulses. The key to repression is that people do it unconsciously.
Involves voluntary setting aside of affect and memory, which can also be voluntarily retrieved. Sometimes we do this consciously by forcing the unwanted information out of our awareness, which is known as suppression. In most cases, however, this removal of anxiety provoking memories from our awareness is believed to occur unconsciously. Dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by intentionally avoiding thinking about disturbing problems, wishes, feelings or experiences.
is the redirecting of thoughts, feelings, or and impulses directed at one person or object, but taking it out on another person or object.
the overemphasis of on thinking when confronted with an unacceptable impulse, situation or behavior without employing any emotions whatsoever to help mediate and place the thoughts into an emotional, human context. Rather than deal with the pain associated with the emotions, a person might employ intellectualism, to distance themselves from the impulse.
putting something into a different light or offering a different explanation for one's perceptions or behaviors in the face of a changing reality. For instance, a woman who starts dating a man she really, really likes and thinks the world of is suddenly dumped by the man for no reason. She reframes the situation in her mind with, "I suspected he was a loser all along."
the attempt to take back an unconscious behavior or thought that is unacceptable or hurtful. For instance, after realizing you just insulted your significant other unintentionally, you might spend the next hour praising their beauty, charm and intellect. By "undoing" the previous action, the person is attempting to counteract the damage done by the original comment, hoping the two will balance one another out. Undoing is a secondary defense mechanism that surfaces when unacceptable or frightening thoughts or actions break free into consciousness. Undoing is performed to reverse the consequences that flow from the action.
changing the affect into another symptom, such as a physical disorder or problem.
the channeling of unacceptable impulses, thoughts and emotions into more acceptable ones. For instance, when a person has sexual impulses they would like not to act upon, they may instead focus on rigorous exercise. Refocusing such unacceptable or harmful impulses into productive use helps a person channel energy that otherwise would be lost or used in a manner that might cause the person more anxiety.
process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other arenas. By emphasizing and focusing on one's strengths, a person is recognizing they cannot be strong at all things and in all areas in their lives. For instance, when a person says, "I may not know how to cook, but I can sure do the dishes!" they're trying to compensate for their lack of cooking skills by emphasizing their cleaning skills instead. When done appropriately and not in an attempt to over-compensate, compensation is defense mechanism that helps reinforce a person's self-esteem and self-image.
the emphasis of a person's needs or thoughts in a manner that is respectful, direct and firm. Communication styles exist on a continuum, ranging from passive to aggressive, with assertiveness falling neatly in-between. People who are passive and communicate in a passive manner tend to be good listeners, but rarely speak up for themselves or their own needs in a relationship. People who are aggressive and communicate in an aggressive manner tend to be good leaders, but often at the expense of being able to listen empathetically to others and their ideas and needs. People who are assertive strike a balance where they speak up for themselves, express their opinions or needs in a respectful yet firm manner, and listen when they are being spoken to. Becoming more assertive is one of the most desired communication skills and helpful defense mechanisms most people want to learn, and would benefit in doing so
This involves turning to other people for support.
Aim Inhibition -
In this type of defense, the individual accepts a modified form of their original goal (i.e. becoming a high school basketball coach rather than a professional athlete.)
Satisfying internal needs through helping others. Unlike the self-sacrifice sometimes characteristic of reaction formation, the individual receives gratification either vicariously or from the response of others.
Overachieving in one area to compensate for failures in another.
Pointing out the funny or ironic aspects of a situation.
Indirectly expressing anger. Passive aggressive behaviors are characterized by indirect expressions of aggression and a denial of those feelings in the self. This behavior creates problems for others. Drawing attention to oneself indicates a need for mirroring which is characteristic of narcissistic disorders. Ideas of reference, are an indication of a thought disorder and is usually associated with Schizoid disorder
Isolation of affect -
dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by the separation of ideas from the feelings originally associated with them. The individual loses touch with the feelings associated with a given idea (e.g., traumatic event) while remaining aware of the cognitive elements of it (e.g., descriptive details)
dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by attributing exaggerated negative quality to self or others.
dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by attributing exaggerated positive qualities to others.
dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by feeling or acting as if he or she possesses special powers or abilities and is superior to others.
Autistic Fantasy -
dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by excessive daydreaming as a substitute for human relationships, more effective action or problem solving.
Projective identification -
as in projection, is dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by falsely attributing to another his or her own unacceptable feelings, impulses or thoughts. Unlike simple projection, the individual does not fully disavow what is projected. Instead, the individual remains aware of his or her own affects or impulses, but misattributed them as justifiable reactions to the other person. Not infrequently, the individual induces the very feelings in others that were first mistakenly believed to be there, making it difficult to clarify who did what to whom first.
dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by compartmentalizing opposite affect states and failing to integrate the positive and negative qualities of the self or others into cohesive images. Because ambivalent affects cannot be experienced simultaneously, more balanced views and expectations of self or others are excluded from emotional awareness. Self and object images tend to alternate between polar opposites: exclusively loving, powerfully, worthy, nurturing, and kid - or exclusively bad, hateful, angry, destructive, rejecting or worthless.
Help rejecting complaining -
dealing with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by complaining or making repetitive requests for help that disguise covert feelings of hostility or reproach toward others, which are then expressed by rejecting the suggestions, advice or help that others offer. The complaints or requests may involve physical or psychological symptoms or life problems.
Acting out -
dealing with emotional conflict
• Delusional projection:
holding on to beliefs even when evidence to the contrary is strong, one of the most severe defense mechanisms
• Psychotic denial:
where there is a complete split from reality based on interpretation of activities and events, one of the most severe defense mechanisms
• Psychotic distortion:
where the individual cannot see things as others see them and misinterprets much of what is happening to him or her, one of the most severe defense mechanisms
o Ego syntonic:
traits of personality, thought behavior and values that are incorporated by the individual, who considers them acceptable and consistent with his or her overall true self.
o Ego dystonic:
traits of personality, behavior, thought or orientation considered to be unacceptable, repugnant or inconsistent with the individual's perception - conscious or unconscious- of himself.
• Reciprocal model:
Serves both the individual and society. Sees the individual largely as an abstraction that can be studied, understood, and treated only in relation to the many systems and subsystems of which they are a part. It views the individual as being created, influenced, and modified by their relationships, social institutions, and the interdependency between society and the individual.
Tends to be clinically oriented. Facilitates the interaction among members of the group to achieve change for the individual. The group supports the member, encouraging new, more appropriate modes of functioning. Intervention is reality focused and addresses the problem of dysfunction in the group and within the full range of the individual's relationships.
• Ideas of reference:
incorrect interpretation of a causal incident as having a particular or unusual meaning to the person. An inaccurate belief that the behaviors of others or environmental phenomena appear to have some effect on the individual. I.e. a man sees to men talking and thinks that they are talking about him.
changes in one part of a system change the whole system
when influenced by change, the system will react toward restoration of the status quo.
• Negative feedback: (in family therapy)
takes family back to comfortable balance. As the family system reacts, negative feedback is used to bring family back into balance and maintain homeostasis. For example, if a woman wants to leave her young child at day care and go to work, her fear of family disapproval may be enough incentive to change her mind.
• Positive feedback:
pushes family into changes and the family deviate around from its previous homeostatic state. Positive feedback is used to disturb or unbalance homeostasis. For example, if the same woman decided going to work outside of the home was her choice, positive feedback would be used to get her family to redefine their roles for the changes that must occur in the family system. Positive feedback is often used & created by family therapists in the therapeutic relationship to allow for a more functional family balance to emerge.
the family has an identity of its own; the family system is more than the sum of the individuals who comprise it. For treatment to be successful this family entity must be treated as a whole.
same result can come from different causes
once case can produce different results.
refers to emotions transferred to therapist.
refers to emotions transferred from therapist to client.
the social worker helps the client to further realize and understand what s/he is feeling and encourages father understanding and expression, can paraphrase what client is saying, this is process associated, where summarization is outcome focused.
• In kind assistance:
aid provided instead of cash for specific purposes. Reducing cost housing, food, medical care, and transportation are forms of in-kind assistance.
• Countertransference -
an unconscious or excessive libidinal or aggressive feeling toward a client.
• Primary prevention:
actions taken to keep conditions known to result in disease or social problems from occurring.
• Secondary prevention:
efforts to limit the extent of severity of a problem, the early identification of its existence, early case findings, isolation of the problem so that its effects on other people or situations are minimized.
• Tertiary prevention:
rehabilitory efforts by the social worker or the professional to assist a client who has already experienced a problem to recuperate from its effects & develops sufficient strengths to preclude its return. Most forms of clinical intervention can be considered form of tertiary prevention.
• Adlerian Theory:
humans have an inherent drive for power and strive from feeling inferior.
response to a real threat
response without presence of a real threat
• Social services provisions should be
both racially and ethnically neutral, unless the client has a preference. The worker should begin the interview in the same way any other interview would begin without reference to different ethnic or racial backgrounds.
• The goal of community practice is
to build community groups that will become increasingly independent and engaged in local institutions or decision making structures.
o Birth - 2 months:
probably can notice faces and bright objects
o 2 months:
social smile develops, generally can follow moving objects with eyes, pays attention to speaking voice, grunts and sighs.
o Four months:
recognizes familiar objects, can activate arms and vocalizes socially (coo's) enjoys having people around, holds a rattle for an extended period of time, and recognizes bottle and familiar faces.
o Five months:
grasps objects independently, stretches out arms when picked up.
o Six months:
teething begins, recognizes strangers but does not generally show fear, turns over from back to stomach.
o Seven months:
make polysyllabic vowel sounds, sits briefly can transfer objects from one hand to another.
o Eight months:
sits alone easily, clearly recognizes strangers and reacts to them negatively if feel unprotected. ** this is when stranger anxiety can first develop
o Nine months:
sits alone and creeps. Dada mama baba, responds to name
o Ten months:
pays attention, plays some games, stands with support
o 11 months:
stands by self with support
o 12 months:
walks with help, shows affection, jealously, anger and other emotions. Enjoys some solid foods. "Walk by one, talk by two." The first words children generally express are nouns
o 15 months:
walks well alone, generally expected to start walking at 14 months, names familiar pictures and objects.
o 18 months:
walks and can run, know several words & small phrases
o 2 years:
does not like to share possessions, great sense of everything is mine not yours, able to run, says at least 50 words, can use two word sentences point to objects in a book.
o 6 years:
lose temporary teeth and permanent teeth begin to come in, good coordination and adequate speech, knows colors & numbers well, begin reading
o Ten -12 years:
have ability to abstract think & understand many abstract processes.
o Stranger Anxiety:
fear or apprehension of a very young child when around unfamiliar people
o Separation anxiety:
the fear experienced when a child fears the loss of the primary caregiver.
• Psychosocial Development:
Erikson stresses the social rather than the sexual development, has 8 stages of psychosocial development
o Robert Peck:
expanded on Erikson's stage of integrity vs. despair
Ego-differentiation vs work role preoccupation is
Peck's developmental task in which older adults must redefine their worth in terms of something other than work roles.
Body transcendence vs. body preoccupation
older adults must cope with declining physical well-being.
Ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
older adults must recognize that, while death is inevitable and probably not too far away, they feel at ease with themselves by realizing that they have contributed to the future through the competent rearing of their children or through their vocation and ideas.
o Preconventional morality (ages 4-10)
Stage 1: punishment-obedience orientation, moral judgment with the desire to avoid punishment Stage 2: instrumental-relativism orientation, motivation is to satisfy own needs. o Conventional Morality (ages 10-13) Stage 3: wants to avoid disapproval "good girl-nice boy" Stage 4: law & order orientation, moral judgments are made in fear of perceived legitimate authority
o Post-conventional morality (adolescent to adulthood)
Stage 5: legalistic orientation, individual is concerned with fitting in the community and abiding societal mores, etc. Stage 6: gains a sense of what it means to believe in a universal ethical principle orientation, where an individual's conscience determines the criterion for conduct. **
it is important to note that many individual do not reach this last stage
o Locus of control:
in understanding the concept of "locus of control" it is most often associated with perceived responsibility. Generally, this refers to a concept that defines where individuals feel control over their behavior or where the responsibility lies. This responsibility lies within themselves (internal) or outside themselves and is influenced by external environmental and system events.
• Cognitive Development:
Piaget "big on test"
finding and establishing a "goodness of fit"
the act of incorporating one's environment into the existing environment.
modify current thought structure to deal with new features of an environment. E.g. an individual might modify what s/he believes to make it easier to deal with another individual, group or society.
which is the state of balance, an individual seeks. This need for balance is the primary organizing force behind cognitive growth and development.
Sensorimotor: (ages 0-2)
six substages, individuals look to environment in terms of sensory information and the actions that can be performed (e.g., sucking, grasping, and hitting ** Achieve object permanence.
Preoperational thought (ages 2-7) includes
two substages: 1. Preconception (age 204) and intuitive (4-7). Individual engage in symbolic play and interpretation (e.g. use of language & modeling • Achieve irreversibility (children are often considered egocentric/egocentrism before the age of 6.
Concrete Operational (ages 7-11)
during this stage, individuals can understand abstract symbols. Here the child is realistic in his/her way of thinking • Achieve conservation (mass, liquid, volume, and weight)
the individual develops egocentrism and is able to self-admire and self-criticize, full abstract and logical deduction ability is reached. • Abstract thinking or "thinking about thinking" becomes possible • Only ½ of all adults achieve this stage.
o A variable is
any phenomena or characteristic that is free to vary with at least 2 conditions or levels. A constant is restricted to a single state.
Independent variables are
the presumed cause.
Dependent variables are
the presumed effect and vary as related to the independent variable.
Usually the treatment being tested is
the independent variable.
o Research problems are stated
in terms of a hypothesis.
o Random sample:
Briefly state, it is a planned process that utilizes probability theory to ensure that the sample will represent the population. In the random sample each subject in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
this is the true goal of all research. It is where you take what you know about a small group or sample of a population and apply it to explain the general population.
Means there is an association between two variables:
as one goes up, the other goes up; as one goes down, the other goes down.
Negative or inverse association:
as one goes up, the other goes down; as one goes down, other gores up.
• As members of NASW, we subscribe to NASW code of ethics. This code is
provided as a guideline for ethical practice. This code is divided into six sections and only highlights of each will be discussed.
NASW has been given
the right to ensure and set ethical practice standards for social workers.
The social work state licensing boards establish
the minimum criteria or standards for competence for practice in the state.
the primary goal is to help people in need and address social problems.
o Social justice:
challenge social justice
o Dignity and worth of the person:
respect each individual
o Importance of human relationships:
recognize the importance of social relationships
to behave in a trustworthy manner
practice within your area of competence and commit to further develop and enhance skill
o Commitment to clients
(first duty to client unless violates responsibility to larger society or legal sanctions) (e.g., client has abused a child, danger to self or others).
o Client's rights/prerogatives
(client self-determination always come first unless a danger to self or others)
o Informed consent:
confidentiality and privacy needs to be ensured, be clear and always protect this right with informed consent or clear verbal instructions, etc. Access to records, limit access only if it could cause harm to the client. Must document reason for withholding as well as any client requests for records.
o Sexual relationships
should not occur under any circumstances
o It is the social worker's responsibility
to set clear appropriate & culturally sensitive boundaries with any client served.
• The social worker's ethical responsibility to colleagues
o Treat them with respect, fairness and courtesy o Respect confidential information shared o Sexual relationships with other social workers that serve as educators or supervisors are discourage, when professional authority is assumed
o Report colleagues
who do not take own action to protect clients.
• The social worker's ethical responsibility to employers and employing organizations
o Commitments to the employing organization (must adhere)
• The social worker's ethical responsibility to the profession
o Maintaining the integrity of the profession o Community service o Development of knowledge
• The social worker's ethical responsibility to society
o Promoting general welfare
o The right of
the "least restrictive alternative"
o If client is involuntarily admitted must receive treatment.
Treatment must be cure or improvement orientated
o Client must have right to
due process and signed consent
o Clients have a right to
o Clients can sue if
used in published case description without permission - if case is identifiable.
o Confidentiality is generally meant in terms of
therapy content. It is an ethical responsibility and must be provided to all clients and research participants. Names of clients should not be given out.
o When to disclose info:
if danger to self or others and in cases of child/elder abuse.
o Privilege is
a legal term similar to confidentiality although this term applies specifically to the courts and other legal proceedings. Only laws establish privilege. Privilege was traditionally help only by the client - not by the therapist. Generally, when working with adolescents, parents or legal guardians and emancipated minors are considered to possess privilege. The legally incompetent and minors (nonemancipated) do not.
o Subpoenas -
provided only the information required to provide. If testifying on behalf of a client, have them put request in writing.
o Fee setting and collection generally involves
setting reasonable fees and collecting them at either the beginning or end of each session. Never discharge a client b/c of inability to pay.
o Clients should always sign
a release of info before discussing cases with anyone, including other mental health professionals.
o Boundaries for treatment are
simply stated - friendships & sexual relationships outside of the therapy session are prohibited.
o Pro bono services are
permitted by the NASW code of ethics & are now directly encouraged.
• Although confidentiality laws apply to minors,
it is good clinical practice to respect the concerns of the parents and to provide at least a general response. Letting the adolescent know of the parents' interest and enlisting her help in thinking about a response, allows her to determine the boundaries of shared material. It also reinforces the alliance between worker and client.
• Social worker-client communications are
confidential. The social worker cannot reveal information (with some exceptions) without written client consent. Occasionally, judges order social worker to reveal material without consent, in effect asserting that the court's need for info trumps worker-client confidentiality. At that point, the social worker has a choice; obey the judge or risk a contempt citation and imprisonment.
• Colonial poor laws derived from
Elizabethan concepts which held that local government was responsible for the poor. It was not until the social security act of 1935 that most of the obligation was shifted to federal and state governments.
• The 19th century Charity Organization Societies were
precursors to social casework. To individualize charity, they sent "friendly visitors" to offer guidance to the poor and to provide follow-up to the planned giving that was an essential component of scientific charity.
• The idea that the cause of poverty rested in the larger society rather than within the attributes of the individual,
gained currency during the 1960's. The term "blaming the victim" came to be used to attack the culture of poverty theory.
• Deinstitutionalization was
advanced as a major strategy only after psychotropic meds proved safe & effective. Prior to that time, there would have been little professional or political support for seriously ill patients.
The colonial poor laws are best understood as
translation of Elizabethan poor law to an American context. They were not fully altered until many forms of public assistance became a federal function in 1935, with the passage of the social security act.
• The recent welfare reform law mandates
a lifetime limit for welfare assistance, a feature that many in social work find short-sighted. Though the law also anticipates support services to help welfare families achieve independence, these supports have not been uniformly available.
As states implement more restrictive policies,
welfare caseloads have declined. As more clients reach their time limits for assistance, it is anticipated that welfare rolls will decline further.
Parenting style: strict rules leads to obedient but lower in happiness.
Parenting style: have rules but democratic; leads to capable and happy
Parenting style: few demands(friends); leads to low happiness and problems with authority
Parenting style: few demands and communication; leads to lack of self control
Stages of group development
Preaffiliation,power & control, intimacy, differentiation, separation
makes faulty decisions because of group pressure
tendency of group members to move to an extreme position after discussing an issue as a group
Precontempation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination
Stages of grief
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Static risk factor
One that cannot be changed, such as an offender's delinquency record
Dynamic risk factors
risk factors that change over time and situation
the generalization or normalization of behavior
Reframing and relabeling
stating problem in a different way so a client can see possible solutions
strategic family therapy
therapist guides the therapy sessions and develops treatment plans for each family member for specific problems that can addressed in a short amount of time
structural family therapy
treatment in which therapists deeply involve themselves in family activities to change how family members arrange and organize interactions
measure the services
measures the outcome
Trust vs mistrust
Erikson's first stage during the first year of life, infants learn to trust when they are cared for in a consistent warm manner
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Erikson's second stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing and other activities
Industry vs. Inferiority
Erikson's stage fourth stage, when the child learns to be productive
identity vs confusion
Erikson's fifth stage. The major task is to build a consistent identity.
intimacy vs isolation
Erikson's sixth stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families
generatively vs stagnation
Erikson's seventh stage; contribute to the next generation through child rearing, caring for other people, or productive work.
integrity vs despair
Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives
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