This set gathers definitions of feminism
Terms in this set (28)
Equality feminists believe that both men and women, while unquestionably biologically and anatomically different, enter the world with the genetic inheritance of a mother and a father and from that respect human nature is androgynous, neutral, and equal. Wollstonecraft (1792), Mill (1869), Young.
men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. Many Catholics adhere to and have written on the philosophy, though the philosophy is not specifically Catholic.
Although the title "difference feminism" is a relatively recent addition to the feminist movement, the philosophies of gender relations undergirding this category have their roots as far back as the early Greeks. Forms of difference feminism often stress a fundamental biological, emotional, psychological or spiritual difference between the sexes.
Reverse Gender Polarity
Fractional gender complementarity argues that men and women complement one another as separate parts that together make up a composite whole. This form of difference feminism was most prominent in the Cult of True Womanhood developed in reaction to other forms of feminism in the 19th century. It originally developed from a neoplatonic unisex theory that one sexless soul was incarnated into two different bodies: male and female. The two, when added together, were to have formed a single mind.
Integral gender complementarity
Integral gender complementarity argues that men and women are each integral, whole beings unto themselves whose result when put together is greater than the sum of their parts. Michele M. Schumacher, for example, believes that there is "one (human) nature, two modes of expression... Together they form a communion of persons..."to exist mutually one for the other" "  (Edith Stein)
Enlightenment debates emphasize a universal human nature and ability to reason
French Revolution--opens a space for women to take political action
Publication of Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women --foundational text for British and American feminism.
World Anti Slavery Convention, London. Women's exclusion inspires American women to organize a convention for women's rights.
Women's Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, United States. First meeting to focus on women's rights.
Publication of John Stuart Mill's On the Subjection of Women. A key text linking women's emancipation and liberal political theory. Work was translated into multiple languages.
Beginnings of the "First Wave" as organizations demand improvements in women's social and political position in most European and N. American countries.
International Council of Women founded in Washington to foster international solidarity
Women in New Zealand are the first to gain the vote
Women's Social and Political Union founded in Britain --become associated with "militant" methods
Internation Woman Suffrage Alliance found in Berlin to bring suffragists together from around the world
women's suffrage is the focus of feminist activity in North America and Europe
Women's Peace Congress at the Hague. Women's International League is formed to work for peace
many countries enfranchise women in the immediate post-war period such as: Austria, Canada, US, Britain, Germany, The Netherlands, Czechloslovakia, Sweden and the Republic of Ireland.
Struggle for Women's Rights and suffrage in Latin America, Carribean, Asia and parts of the Middle East. In 1930 women gain the vote in Brazil, Uruguay, Cuba, Turkey, the Philippines, El Salvador, and Puerto Rico
Immediate post war period women are enfranchised in France, Italy, Lebanon, Egypt and Ethiopia
Publication of Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex --a foundational text for "second wave feminism"
Publication of Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique. Her focus on women's experiences in the nuclear family were central to "second wave feminism"
protests against Miss World Contest in Atlantic City --beginningsof the Women's Liberation Movement
United Nations International Women's Year
United Nations Decade of Women
Greenham Peace Camp
1980s and 1990s
Backlash against feminism, particularly in mass media
World Conference on Women in Beijing sponsored by the United Nations
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