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Period 1- AP World History
AP World History Period: Prehistory to 600 BCE
Terms in this set (43)
During what famous age/period did the early human migrations take place?
The Paleolithic Era
Where di the early migrations begin?
They began in East Africa
What did anthropologists believe about the social structures of early hunter-forager bands?
They have inferred that these bands were relatively egalitarian.
What "technologies" did early humans develop and how did they use these technologies?
A wider range of tools specifically adapted to different environments from topics to tundra, as well as fire to aid with hunting and foraging, to protect against predators, and to help adapt to cold environments.
Why did early humans develop different tools in different regions of the world?
To adapt to different environments and climates, depending on their location and needs.
What do we know about the economic structures of early hunger-forager bands?
Economic structures focused on small kinship groups of hunting-foraging bands that could make what they needed to survive. Not all groups were self-sufficient; they exchanged people, ideas, and goods.
What major historical turning point occurred about 10,000 years ago?
The Agricultural Revolution
How did the switch to agriculture impact the environment? Why?
Through intensive cultivation of selected plants to the exclusion of others, through the construction of irrigation systems and through the use of domesticated animals for food and for labor. This caused environmental diversity.
How did social structures change with the switch to agriculture?
Patriarchy and forced labor systems developed, giving elite men concentrated power over most o the other people in their societies.
What is pastoralism and where did it first emerge?
Pastoralism is the domestication of crops and animals. It first emerged in parts of Africa and Eurasia (Afro-Eurasia).
What are some defining characteristics of the pastoralist way of life?
It tended to be more socially stratified than were hunter-foragers, similar to agriculturalists. They were mobile and rarely accumulated large amounts of material possessions.
How did pastoralists affect people living in settled agricultural communities?
It allowed them to become an important conduit for technological change as they interacted with settled populations.
What are the seven major regions associated with the emergence of agriculture?
2. The Nile River Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa
3. The Indus River Valley
4. The Yellow River or Huang He Valley
5. Papua New Guinea
7. The Andes
Why did people in agricultural communities have to work cooperatively with one another?
They needed to be able to clear land and create the water control systems needed for crop production.
How was the environmental diversity impacted by the emergence of agriculture?
Drastic changes, as certain plants flourished and others were wiped out.
How did the emergence of pastoralism and agriculture affect the food supply?
They created a more reliable and abundant food supplies, which increased population.
What happened to early human populations as a result of pastoralism and agriculture? Explain.
Populations increased due to there being more food.
How agriculture affect human labor systems before 600 BCE?
Surpluses of food and other goods led to specialization of labor, including new classes of artisans and warriors, and the development of elites.
How did specialization of labor impact technology before 600 BCE?
Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation.
What important technological innovations emerged as a result of the specialization of labor?
Pottery; plows; woven textiles; metallurgy; wheels and wheeled vehicles.
What are some important characteristics of the elite groups that emerged with the switch to pastoralism and agriculture?
In both pastoralist and agrarian societies, elite groups accumulated wealth, creating more hierarchical social structures and promoting patriarchal forms of social organization.
How long ago did the first societies develop that laid the foundations for civilization?
5,000 years ago.
What does the term 'civilization' usually designate?
It usually designates large societies with cities and powerful states
What important features do all civilizations share?
They all produced agricultural surpluses, they all contained cities and generated complex institutions. They also featured clearly stratified social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships.
In regards to labor systems, what do agricultural surpluses permit?
They permit significant specialization of labor.
Name the "core and foundational civilizations" where agriculture flourished:
1. Mesopotamia (Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers)
2. Egypt in the Nile River Valley
3. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley
4. Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He Valley
5. Olmecs in Mesoamerica
6. Chavin in Andean South America
What are the defining characteristics of a "state"?
States were powerful new systems of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas.
What are some typical defining characteristics of the leaders of early states?
Early states were often led by a ruler whose source of power was believed to be divine or had divine support and/or who was supported by the military.
What are the Hittites known for?
They had access to iron.
What does it mean to be a "favorably situated" state?
The states with greater access to resources, that produced more surplus food, and experienced growing populations.
What was a common trend in early states with food surplus and growing populations?
They undertook territorial expansion and conquered surrounding states.
Which three regions experienced the first empire building?
3. The Nile River Valley
What role did pastoralists play in transforming civilizations? Provide some examples.
They were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons and modes of transportation that transformed warfare in the agrarian civilizations. (i.e. compound bow, iron weapons, chariots, and horseback riding).
What role did culture play in unifying states?
Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myth, and monumental art.
What are some examples of monumental architecture and urban planning in early civilizations?
Ziggurats, pyramids, temples, defensive walls, streets and roads, and sewage and water systems.
Who promoted the arts and artisanship in early civilizations?
Both political and religious elites.
Systems of record keeping arose "_____" in all early civilizations. Some examples of these are:
"independently"; Examples: cuneiform, hieroglyphs, pictographs, alphabets, and Quipu.
What is an example of an early legal code?
The Code of Hammurabi.
What religious beliefs developed during the period of early/core civilizations?
Vedic religion (Hinduism), Hebrew monotheism (Judaism), and Zoroastrianism (from Persia).
How did trade change during this time period?
Trade expanded throughout this period from local to regional and trans regional, with civilizations exchanging goods, cultural ideas, and technology.
List several examples of civilizations that exchanged goods, ideas, and technology during the period of early civilizations?
1. Between Egypt and Nubia
2. Between Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley
What changed in the realm of social systems during the period of early civilizations?
Social and gender hierarchies intensified as states expanded and cities multiplied. Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided s bond among people and an ethical code to live by.
What are some examples of literature from the period of early civilizations?
"Epics of Gilgamesh", "rig veda," and "book of the dead".