193 terms

Period 3 - AP World History

The Post-Classical World, 500-1450
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Bedouin
nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula with a culture based on herding camels and goats
Shaykhs
leaders of tribes and clans within Bedouin society; usually possessed large herds, several wives, and many children
Mecca
Arabian commercial center; dominated by the Quraysh; the home of Muhammad and the future center of Islam
Medina
town northeast of Mecca; asked Muhammad to resolve its intergroup differences; Muhammad's flight to Medina, the hijra, in 622 began the Muslim calendar
Umayyad
clan of the Quraysh that dominated Mecca; later an Islamic dynasty
Muhammad
(570-632); prophet of Allah; originally a merchant of the Quraysh
Qur'an
the word of god as revealed through Muhammad; made into the holy book of Islam
Umma
community of the faithful within Islam
Zakat
tax for charity obligatory for all Muslims
Five Pillars
the obligatory religious duties for all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Caliph
the successor to Muhammad as head of the Islamic community
Ali
cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for the development of shi'ism
Abu Bakr
succeeded Muhammad as the first caliph
Ridda
wars following Muhammad's death; the defeat of rival prophets and opponents restored the unity of Islam
Jihad
Islamic holy war
Mu'awiya
the first Umayyad caliph; his capital was Damascus
Copts, Nestorians
Christian sects of Syria and Egypt; gave their support to the Arabic Muslims
Sunnis
followers of the majority interpretation within Islam; included the Umayyads
Shi'a
followers of Ali's interpretation of Islam
Mawali
non-Arab converts to Islam
Jizya
head tax paid by all non-Muslims in Islamic lands
Dhimmis
"the people of the book"-- Jews, Christians; later extended to Zoroastrians and Hindus
Abbasids
dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in 750; their capital was at Baghdad
Hadiths
"traditions" of the prophet Muhammad; added to the Qur'an, form the essential writings of Islam
Wazir
chief administrative official under the Abbasids
Dhows
Arab sailing vessels; equipped with lateen sails; used by Arab merchants
Ayan
the wealthy landed elite that emerged under the Abbasids
Al-Mahdi
3rd Abbasid caliph (775-785); failed to reconcile Shi'a moderates to his dynasty and to resolve the succession problem
Harun al-Rashid
most famous of the Abbasid caliphs (786-809); renowned for sumptuous and costly living recounted in The Thousand and One Nights
Buyids
Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad
Seljuk Turks
nomadic invaders from central Asia; staunch Sunnis; ruled from the 11th c. in the name of the Abbasids
Crusades
invasions of western Christians into Muslim lands, especially Palestine; captured Jerusalem and established Christian kingdoms enduring until 1291
Salah-ud-Din
Muslim ruler of Egypt and Syria; reconquered most of the crusader kingdoms
Ibn Khaldun
great Muslim historian; author of The Muqaddimah; sought to uncover persisting patterns in Muslim dynasty history
Al-Razi
classified all matter as animal, vegetable, and mineral
Al-Biruni
11th c. scientist; calculated the specific weight of major minerals
Ulama
Islamic religious scholars; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; opposed to non-Islamic thinking
Al-Ghazali
brilliant Islamic theologian; attempted to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions
Sufis
Islamic mystics; spread Islam to many Afro-Asian regions
Mongols
central Asian nomadic peoples; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliph
Chinggis Khan
(1162-1227); Mongol ruler; defeated the Turkish Persian kingdoms
Mamluks
Rulers of Egypt; descended from Turkish slaves
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Arab general who conquered Sind and made it part of the Umayyad Empire
Arabic numerals
Indian numerical notation brought by the Arabs to the West
Mahmud of Ghazni
ruler of an Afghan dynasty; invaded northern India during the 11th century
Muhammad of Ghur
Persian ruler of a small Afghan kingdom; invaded and conquered much of northern India
Sati
Hindu ritual for burning widows with their deceased husbands
Bhaktic cults
Hindu religious groups who stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the gods or goddesses-- especially Shiva, Vishnu, and Kali
Kabir
15th c. Muslim mystic who played down the differences between Hinduism and Islam
Shrivijaya
trading empire based on the Malacca straits; its Buddhist government resisted Muslim missionaries; when it fell, southeastern Asia was opened to Islam
Malacca
flourishing trading city in Malaya; established a trading empire after the fall of Shrivijaya
Demak
most powerful of the trading states on the north Java coast; converted to Islam and served as a dissemination point to other regions
Stateless societies
societies of varying sizes organized through kingship and lacking the concentration of power found in centralized states
Maghrib
Arabic term fro northwestern Africa
Almoravids
a puritanical Islamic movement among the Berbers of northwest Africa; built an empire reaching from the African savanna into Spain
Almohadis
a later puritanical Islamic reform movement among the Berbers of northwest Africa; also built an empire reaching from the African savanna into Spain
Ethiopia
a Christian kingdom in the highlands of eastern Africa
Sahel
the extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara; an exchange region between the forests in the south and north of Africa
Sudanic states
states trading with north Africa and mixing Islamic and indigenous ways
Mali
state of the Malinke people centered between the Senegal and Niger rivers
Juula
Malinke merchants who traded throughout the Mali Empire and west Africa
Mansa
title of the ruler of Mali
Ibn Battuta
Arab traveler throughout the Muslim world
Kankan Musa
(c. 1312-1337) made a pilgrimage to Mecca during the 14th c. that became legendary because of the wealth distributed along the way
Sundiata
created a unified state that became the Mali empire; died in 1260
Songhay
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of the Niger valley; capital at Gao
Hausa states
states, such as Kano, among the Hausa of northern Nigeria; combined Islamic and indigenous beliefs
East African trading ports
urbanized commercial centers mixing African and Arab cultures; included Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwas, Pate, and Zanzibar
Demographic transition
the change from slow to rapid population growth; often associated with industrialization; occurred first in Europe and is more characteristic of the "developed world"
Nok
central Nigerian culture with a highly developed art style flourishing between 500 BCE and 200 CE
Yoruba
highly urbanized Nigerian agriculturists organized into small city-states, as Oyo, under the authority of regional divine kings presiding over elaborate courts
Luba
peoples, in Katanga, created a form of divine kingship where the ruler had powers ensuring fertility of people and crops
Great Zimbabwe
with massive stone buildings and walls, incorporates the greatest early buildings in sub-Saharan Africa
Justinian
6th c Byzantine emperor; failed to reconquer the western portions of the empire; rebuilt Constantinople; codified Roman law
Body of Civil Law
Justinian's codification of Roman Law; reconciled Roman edicts and decisions; made Roman law coherent basis for political and economic life
Greek Fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; used to drive back the Arab fleets attacking Constantinople
Icons
images of religious figures venerated by Byzantine Christians
Iconoclasm
the breaking of images; religious controversy of the 8th c; Byzantine emperor attempted, but failed, to suppress icon veneration
Manzikert
Seljuk Turk victory in 1071 over Byzantium; resulted in loss of the empire's rich Anatolian territory
Cyril and Methodius
Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and Balkans; responsible for creation of Slavic written script called Cyrillic
Kiev
commercial city in Ukraine established by Scandinavians in 9th c; became the center for a kingdom that flourished until 12th c
Rurik
legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of Kievan Rus' in 855
Vladmir I
ruler of Kiev (980-1015); converted kingdom to Orthodox Christianity
Russian Orthodoxy
Russian form of Christianity brought from Byzantine Empire
Yaroslav
(975-1054); last great Kievan monarch; responsible for codification of laws, based on Byzantine codes
Boyars
Russian land-holding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Tatars
Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th c; left Russian church and aristocracy intact
Middle Ages
the period in western European history between the fall of Roman Empire and the 15th c
Gothic
an architectural style developed during the 13th and 14th c in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external support on main walls
Vikings
seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the 8th to 11th c; pushed across the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and North America; formed permanent territories in Normandy and Sicily
Manorialism
rural system of reciprocal relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; peasants exchanged labor for use of land and protection
Serfs
peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system
Moldboard
adjunct to the plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils
Three-field system
practice of dividing land into thirds, rotating between two different crops and pasturage-- an improvement making use of manure
Clovis
King of the Franks; converted to Christianity circa 496
Carolingians
royal house of Franks from 8th c to 10th c
Charles Martel
first Carolingian king of the Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732
Charlemagne
Carolingian monarch who established large empire in France and Germany circa 800
Holy Roman Emperors
political heirs to Charlemagne's empire in northern Italy and Germany; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchy
Feudalism
personal relationship during the Middle Ages by which greater lords provided land to lesser lords in return for military service
Vassals
members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
Capetians
French dynasty ruling from the 10th c; developed a strong central monarchy
William the Conqueror
invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in England
Magna Carta
Great charter issued by King John of England in 1215; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy, and the supremacy of law
Parliaments
bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the principle that kings ruled with the advice and consent of their subjects
Hundred Years War
conflict between England and France over territory (1337-1453) Established a since of Nationalism with each country. Joan of Arc united the French and promoted French patriotism.
Pope Urban II
organized the first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control
Investiture
the practice of appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory attempted to stop lay investiture, leading to a conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
St. Clare of Assisi
13th c founder of a woman's monastic order; represented a new spirit of purity and dedication to the Catholic Church
Gregory VII
11th c pope who attempted to free church from secular control; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops
Thomas Aquinas
creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God
Scholasticism
dominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problems
Troubadours
poets in 14th c southern France; gave a new value to the emotion of love in Western tradition
Hanseatic League
an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
Jacques Coeur
15th c French merchant; his career as banker to the French monarchy demonstrates new course of medieval commerce
Guilds
associations of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeships, guaranteed good workmanship; held a privileged place in cities
Black Death
bubonic plague that struck Europe in the 14th c; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure; decimated populations in Asia
Indian
misnomer created by Columbus when referring to indigenous New World peoples; still used to describe Native Americans
Toltecs
nomadic peoples from beyond northern frontier of sedentary agriculture in Mesoamerica; established capital at Tula following migration into central Mesoamerican plateau; strongly militaristic ethic, including cult of human sacrifice
Aztecs
the Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that penetrated into the sedentary zone of the Mesoamerican plateau after the fall of the Toltecs; established empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texcoco
Tenochtitlan
founded circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoc; became center of Aztec power
Calpulli
clans in Aztec society; evolved into residential groupings that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
Chinampas
beds of aquatic weeks,mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs
Pochteca
merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items
Inca socialism
an interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole
Inca
group of clans (ayllu) centered at Cuzco; created an empire in the Andes during the 15th c; also title of the ruler
Pachacuti
Inca ruler (1438-1471); began the military campaign that marked the creation of an Inca empire
Huayna Capac
Inca ruler (1493-1527); brought the empire to its greatest extent
Split inheritance
Inca practice of ruler descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of dead Inca's mummy
Curacas
local rulers who the Inca left in office in return for loyalty
Tambos
way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
Quipu
system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records
Period of the Six Dynasties
era of continuous warfare (220-589) among the many kingdoms that followed the fall of the Han
Wendi
member of prominent northern Chinese family during the era of Six Dynasties; established Sui dynasty in 589, with support from northern nomadic peoples
Li Yuan
Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over the empire after the assassination of Yangdi; 1st Tang ruler
Ministry of Public Rites
administered the examinations for state office during the Tang dynasty
Jinshi
title given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high office
Chan Buddhism
call Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite
Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism
emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses in East Asia
Wuzong
Tang emperor (841-847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism
Khitan nomads
founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture
Zhao Kuangyin
general who founded Song dynasty; took royal name of Taizu
Zhu Xi
most prominent Neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life
Wang Anshi
Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song ruler in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalism; advocated greater state intervention in society
Southern Song
smaller surviving dynasty (1127-1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history. Fell to the Mongols in 1276 and eventually taken over in 1279.
Jurchens
founders of Jin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin and forces Song to flee south
Grand Canal
great canal system begun by Yangdi; joined Yellow River region to the Yangtze basin
Junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Flying money
Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency
Footbinding
male imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household; seen a beautiful to the elite.
Bi Sheng
11th c artisan; devised technique of printing with movable type; made it possible for China to be the most contemporary literate civilziation
Taika reforms
attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
Fujiwara
mid-9th c Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
Bushi
regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies
Samurai
mounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperor
Seppuku
ritual suicide in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honor
Gempei wars
Waged for 5 years from 1180-1185, on the island of Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in the destruction of Taira and also resulted in the feudal age
Bakufu
military government established by the Minamoto following Gempei wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai
Shoguns
military leaders of the bakufu
Hojo
a warrior family closely allied with the Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; ruled in name of emperor
Ashikaga Takuaji
member of Minamoto family; overthrew KamaKura regime and established Ashikaga shogunate (1336-1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino
Daimyos
warlord rulers of small states following Onin war and disruption of Ashikaga shogunate; holding consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states
Choson
earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han in 109 BCE
Koguryo
tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification
Sinification
extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions
Yi
dynasty (1392-1910); succeeded Koryo dynasty after Mongol invasions; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence
Trung Sisters
leaders of a rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 CE; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese society
Khmers and Chams
Indianized Vietnamese peoples defeated by northern government at Hanoi
Nguyen
southern Vietnamese dynasty with capital at Hue that challenged northern Trinh dynasty with center at Hanoi
Chinggis Khan
born in 1170s; elected supreme Mongol ruler (khagan) in 1206; began the Mongols rise to world power; died 1227
Tumens
basic fighting units of Mongol forces; made up of 10,000 cavalrymen divided into smaller units
Tangut
rulers of Xi-Xia kingdom of northwest China; during the southern Song period; conquered by Mongols in 1226
Shamanistic religion
Mongol beliefs focused on nature spirits
Batu
grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Golden Horde; invaded Russian in 1236
Golden Horde
one of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after death of Chinggis Khan; conquered and ruled Russua during the 13th and 14th c
Prester John
a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some thought he was Chinggis Khan
Ilkhan khanate
one of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; eventually included much of Abbasid empire
Hulegu
grandson of Chinggis Khan and rule of Ilkhan khanate; captured and destroyed Abbasid Baghdad
Mamluks
Muslim slave warriors; established dynasty in Egypt; led by Baibars defeated Mongols in 1260
Kubilai Khan
grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271
Chabi
influential wife of Kubilai Khan; demonstrated refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Confucian China
Nestorians
Asian Christian sect; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
White Lotus Society
secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty
Ju Yuanzhang
Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded Ming dynasty
Timur-i-Lang
last major nomad leader; 14th c, known to the West as Tamerlane; Turkic ruler of Samarkand; launched attacks in Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405
Ottoman Empire
Turkish empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending through the Middle East and the Balkans; conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended Byzantine Empire
Ming Dynasty
replaced Mongal Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted large trade expeditions to southern Asia and Africa; later concentrated on internal development within China
Zheng He
Muslim Chinese seaman; commanded expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean
Renaissance
cultural and political elite movement beginning in Italy circa 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; produced literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the European Middle Ages
Portugal, Castile, and Aragon
regional Iberian kingdoms; participated in reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda
Vivaldi brothers
Genoese explorers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies"; precursors of European thrust into southern Atlantic
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince; sponsored Atlantic voyages; reflected the forces present in last postclassical Europe
Ethnocentrism
judging foreigners by the standards of one's own group; leads to problems in interpreting world history