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personal selling

informs customers to purchase products
gives marketers the greatest freedom
often necessary to assure customers of a high-risk product
disadvantage: most expensive method in promotional mix


usually closest to customers, keep customers satisfied so they get repeat business

personal selling process

1) prospecting (database of potential customers)
2) preapproach (i.d. key decision makers, prepping)
3) approach (contacts customer)
4) presentation
5) overcoming objection (counter problems before customer makes them)
6) closing
7) following up

order getter

sells to new customers and increasing sales to present customers

order taker

seeks repeat sales

missionary salespeople

employed by mfrs., assist the producer's customers in selling to their own customers

trade salespeople

support personnel who also take orders
(ex: food producers)

technical salespeople

give technical assistance about product
usually sell industrial products

team selling

salesppl join ppl from financial, engineering, etc. areas
appropriate for expensive, complex products

relationship selling

building mutually beneficial l-t associations

sales promotion

offers incentive to customers


most widely used promotion technique
rewards users
b/c they are returned, it lets co know if it's reaching intended target audience
low brand loyalty

cents-off offer

gives strong incentive to try product

money refunds

submit proof of purchase, mailed specific amount of $
low response rate, so limited impact on sales


customer sent amount of $ for making a single product purchase
used to reinforce brand loyalty
usually offered for expensive products, provide instant gratification
can be too complex

point-of-purchase materials

signs, window displays, display racks


disadvantage: labor costs can be too high

free samples

most expensive sales promotion method!


items offered free/at min cost as a BONUS for purchasing a product

consumer contests

compete for prizes based on skills

consumer games

compete for prizes but mainly on chance
if game done wrong, can result in a lawsuit!

consumer sweepstakes

submit names for a drawing
used to stimulate lagging sales and used in conjunction w/ other sales promo methods

trade sales promotion methods

persuade wholesalers AND retailers to carry & aggressively market and producer's product

buying allowance

temp P reduction offered to resellers for purchasing specific quantities of a product
resellers may buy large amounts to keep themselves supplied for months

buy-back allowance

$ that a producer gives to reseller for each unit the reseller buys after the initial promo is over

cooperative advertising

mfr agrees to pay for some of retailer's advertising

dealer listing

ad shows name of participating retailers

dealer loader

gift given to retailer when they purchase a specific # of merchandise

push money

$ to give salesppl to push a product

sales contest

motivates distributors, retailers, etc. to recognize achievements!!

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