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"50 Facts" History of the Americas HL
Terms in this set (50)
When was the Declaration of Independence signed?
July 4th, 1776
When was the Constitution written? When did it go into effect?
1787 and 1788
When was the Civil War fought?
When was the Battle of Gettysburg? What was its significance?
July 1863. Confederate troops were forced to retreat and never invaded the North again.
Significance of the capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi?
Captured by the North in 1863, effectively split the Confederacy in two and gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union.
a person who wants to end slavery
defined area of land with an organized government that is eligible to apply for statehood
tax on goods brought into a country
strong sense of loyalty to a state or region (section) instead of to the whole country
nation in which voters choose representatives to govern them
Three branches of government?
Legislative, Executive, Judicial
Checks and Balances?
a system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the federal government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branches.
the freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation.
the sharing of power between the states and the national government
Separation of Powers?
a system in which each branch of government has its own powers
the practice of allowing each territory to decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.
the supreme authority of a state to govern itself without interference from another.
to approve by vote.
the right of the Supreme Court to judge laws passed by Congress and determine whether they are constitutional or not.
the idea of a state declaring a federal Law unconstitutional.
the original records of an event. They include eyewitness reports, records created at the time of an event, speeches, and letters by people involved in the event, photographs and artifacts.
the later writings and interpretations of historians and writers. Often secondary sources, like textbooks and articles, provide summaries of information found in primary sources.
Articles of Confederation
the first American constitution. It was a very weak document that limited the power of the Congress in favor of the states.
a policy of establishing the principles and procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States.
The Great Compromise
created two houses of Congress. The House of Representatives is based on each state's population and the Senate gives equal representation to each state.
stated that slaves would be counted as three fifths of a person, but only for purposes of taxation and representative apportionment.
a series of essays written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton, defending the Constitution and the principles on which the government of the United States was founded.
Bill of Rights
he first ten amendments to the Constitution and details the protection of individual liberties.
Farewell Address (George Washington 1796)
advised the United States to stay "neutral in its
relations with other nations" and to avoid alliances.
Marbury v. Madison
the 1803 Supreme Court decision that gave the Supreme Court the right to determine whether a law violates the Constitution. It set up the principle of judicial review.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
delayed a battle over slavery by allowing the entry of Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and creating a boundary between slave and free territories.
Monroe Doctrine of 1823
a foreign policy statement by President James Monroe stating
that 1) the U.S, would not interfere in European affairs, and 2) that the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/ or interference by European nations.
a short speech given by Abraham Lincoln to dedicate a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is considered to be a profound statement of American ideals.
Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, setting all slaves in the Confederate states free.
wrote the Declaration of Independence; became the 3rd President of the United States and purchased the Louisiana territory, doubling the size of the United States.
was the leader of the Continental Army who became the first President of the United States.
considered to be the "Father of the Constitution".
the author of the Monroe Doctrine, which shut down the western hemisphere to European expansion or interference.
the 16th President of the United States who successfully put the Union back together only to be assassinated 5 days after the Civil War ended.
states that Congress shall make no law restricting freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition.
guarantees the right of status to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms.
requires that warrants be issued if property is to be searched or seized (taken) by the government.
protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self-incrimination); bans double jeopardy, and guarantees that no person will suffer the loss of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
guarantees the right to a speedy public trial by an impartial jury; the right to a lawyer; the right to cross examine witnesses; and the right to force witnesses at a trial to testify.
prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail or fines.
states that the people have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
states that powers not given to the federal government belong to the states.
guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States.
guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race.
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