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Anatomy - Chapter 21 - Blood
Topics in packet: I. Cardiovascular System - General Info. II. Composition of Blood III. Hematocrit IV. Hemopoiesis V. Related Clinical Terms
Terms in this set (36)
Functions of this system relate to transportation by...
Functions of this system relate to protection by...
2. immune response
Major components of the cardiovascular system
heart, blood, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, tissues & organs
non-living matrix of this liquid C.T.; about 55% of total volume of blood. it's a type of extracellular fluid (ECF), meaning it is a body fluid found outside of cells.
Plasma contains/made up of...
*water, albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen, lipids, glucose, amino acids, nitrogen waste (mainly urea), various ions (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium) & hormones.
blood cells or cell fragments; about 44% of total volume
Leukocytes (white blood cells)
help initiate an immune response and defend the body against pathogens. transport oxygen & carbon dioxide.
they are "true" cells in that they contain a nucleus and cellular organelles. they do NOT contain hemoglobin.
ends in "phil". can be called granulocyte.
* neutrophil - phagocytic (the most numerous in the blood)
* eosinophil -phagocytic
* basophil - release histamine/heparin
ends in "cyte". can be called agranulocyte.
* monocyte - enter tissues to become free macrophages
* lymphocyte - provides immunity against specific microbes
Erythrocytes (red bloods cells)
a globular protein with molecules of heme attached (called hemoglobin).
- no nucleus at maturity
- last about 120 days
- disc or doughnut shaped
"rouleax" = temporarily bonded to each other, then separate. they line up in a single file and pass thru small blood vessels.
cell membrane has glycoproteins & glycolipids on its surface that deterine compatibility with donated blood
cell fragments produced from megakaryocytes
activate various clotting factors that react with fibrinogen to produce fibrin.
an insoluble protein that is involved in the coagulation phase of hemostasis)
release serotonin, which causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels
a method for determining the percentage of whole blood occupied by cells (% of the volume of all formed elements in the blood)
blood cell formation
most occurs in red bone marrow found in some bones (myeloid tissue) - erythroccytes, granular leukocytes, and platelets are formed this way.
Hemopoiesis (where #2)
some cells, the agranular leukocytes are formed in lymphoid tissues
Hemopoiesis (how it occurs)
stem cells divide by mitosis/cytokinesis to produce RBC's (red blood cells) and WBC's (white blood cells). RBC's shed their nucleus and then enter the circulation. WBC's may mature in the red marrow or mature somewhere else in the body. This is dependent on the type of WBC.
Hemopoiesis (how it occurs #2)
the process of RBC formation is regulated by the hormone erthropoietin that is produced in the kidneys under low oxygen conditions. Ex: thinner air in the rocky mountains...this increase in erythrocytes results in an increased hematocrit.
produced in kidney's when they recognize low levels of oxygen.
Ex: moving to Colorado....building it up after being in that high of altitude over time.
a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells.
can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin.
your body isn't getting enough oxygen-rich blood...as a result you may feel tired, weak, dizzy, get a headache or have shortness of breath.
an iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color. this protein helps red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
halt in blood loss
inherited disorder characterized by a tendency to hemorrhage uncontrollably because of a defect in the blood-coagulating mechanism.
systemic disease caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins through the circulating blood
the smallest and most abundant of the plasma proteins, making up approx. 58% of total plasma proteins. act as transport proteins that carry ions, hormones, and some lipids in the blood.
second-largest group of plasma proteins, forming about 37% of all plasma proteins.
makes up about 4% of all plasma proteins. it's responsible for blood clot formation. following trauma to the walls of blood vessels, fibrinogen is converted into long, insoluble strands of fibrin, which helps form a blood clot.
form a very minor class of plasma proteins (less than 1% of total plasma proteins) and include enzymes, proenzymes, and hormones that are being transported to other parts of body.
molecules that can bind to antigens until a leukocyte can completely kill or remove the antigen, are transported in plasma.
a substance perceived as foreign to the body
measure of how acidic or alkaline a fluid is. blood plasma pH is continuously regulated to try to maintain a value of 7.4, which is the pH level required for normal cellular functioning.
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