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This will help people study for the ESS test.

Point of View

the perspective from which a story is told

3rd person omnicient

the pronouns "he", "she", and "they" are used, the narrator knows everything about every character.

3rd person limited omnicient

the pronouns "he", "she", and "they" are used, narrator does not know more than the characters do.

1st person

the pronouns "I", "us", and "we" are used


a person in a story.

Major characters

persons or agents taking part in the conflict of a story.

Minor characters

persons or agents NOT taking part in the conflict of a story.

Direct Presentation

the author tells you what they are like

Indirect Presentation

the author lets the reader come up with their own assumptions about the character.


the way of showing what a character is like; the way that a person looks, talks, acts, or thinks


the central character in a story (hero of a story faced with a conflict)


the villain of the story who causes the conflict


a character who changes in personality or attitude, whether for the good or for the bad


A character who remains the same throughout history


Stereo typed characters who have occurred so often in fiction that their nature is immediately known (example: mad scientist, prince charming)


the time and place in which the events of the story take place

Specific Setting

Example: Charlotte's Web - barn and pens, 8:16

General Setting

Example: Charlotte's Web - farm, 1970


the overall feeling of a story created by the authors choice of words


an image, object, or action that stands for an idea beyond its literal meaning


the use of selected details to describe one thing in terms of another.


a story's point, its key idea that the issue is about. The universal truth or idea.


hints about an outcome are given to the readers


two unlike things compared with "like" or "as"


two unlike things compared without "like" or "as" (example: the field was an endless sea of green)


the sequence of incidents or events of which a story is composed


A clash of actions, ideas, or goals in the plot of a story

Man vs. Man

the conflict is b/w the main character and some other person

Man vs. Nature

the conflict is b/w the main character and physical nature, society, or fate

Man vs. Himself

conflict is between the protagonist and some destructive element in his or her own nature


the turning point or high point of a story


That portion of a plot that reveals the final outcome of its conflicts or the solution of its mysteries



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