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the ways of thinkng, the ways of action, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life


people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture

culture shock

personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life


anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture


a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another

cultural transmission

the process by which one generation passes culture to the next

Sapir-Whorf thesis

the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language


culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living


specific ideas that people hold to be true


rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members


norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance


norms for routine or casual interaction


knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings

hunting and gathering

the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food


the use of hand tools to raise crops


the domestication of animals.


large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources


the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery


the production of information using computer technology

high culture

cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite

popular culture

cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population


cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population


A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions


the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns


emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns.


cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society

cultural intergration

the close relationship among various elements of a cultural system. (P.56)

cultrual lag

fact that some cultural elements chanmge more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system


the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture

cultural relativism

the practice of judging a culture by its own standards

cultural universals

traits that are part of every known culture


a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture

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