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32 terms

Society the basics CH 2

STUDY
PLAY
culture
the ways of thinkng, the ways of action, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life
society
people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
culture shock
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
symbol
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
language
a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Sapir-Whorf thesis
the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
values
culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
beliefs
specific ideas that people hold to be true
norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
mores
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
folkways
norms for routine or casual interaction
technology
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
hunting and gathering
the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
horticulture
the use of hand tools to raise crops
pastoralism
the domestication of animals.
agriculture
large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
industry
the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
postindustrialism
the production of information using computer technology
high culture
cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
popular culture
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
subculture
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
multiculturalism
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
eurocentrism
the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns
afrocentrism
emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns.
counterculture
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
cultural intergration
the close relationship among various elements of a cultural system. (P.56)
cultrual lag
fact that some cultural elements chanmge more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system
ethnocentrism
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
cultural relativism
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
cultural universals
traits that are part of every known culture
sociobiology
a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture