19 terms

Chapter 5: Historical Development of American Education

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dual-track school system
the traditional European pattern of separate primary schools for the masses and preparatory and secondary schools for males in the upper socioeconomic classes
Latin grammar school
a college preparatory school of the colonial era that emphasized Latin and Greek languages and studies
town school
the eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century elementary school of New England that educated children living in a designated area
hornbook
a single sheet of parchment, containing the Lord's Prayer, letters of the alphabet, and vowels, covered by the translucent, flattened horn of a coward fastened to a flat wooden board. It was used during the colonial era in primary schools
land grant
an arrangement used to found in any of today's state universities. The Morrill Act of 1862 granted thirty thousand acres of public land for each senator and representative in Congress, the income from which was to support at least one state college for agricultural and mechanical instruction
academy
a type of private or semipublic secondary school dominant in the United States from 1830 through 1870. It was an institutional predecessor of the high school
monitorial method
a method of instruction also known as mutual instruction and designed by Andrew Bell and Joseph Lanacaster, working independently of each other in the early nineteenth century. It sought to provide an inexpensive form of mass basic schooling by using more advanced students-monitors-to teach less advanced students
common school
a publicly supported and locally controlled elementary school
educational ladder
the system of public schooling developed in the United States the begins with kindergarten, proceeds through elementary education, continues through secondary education, and leads to attendance at a college or university
normal school
a two-year tech-education institution popular in the 19th century
high school
a school for students in the upper secondary grades, commonly serving grades 9 or 10 through 12
Committee of Ten
a committee, charred by Charles Eliot, appointed by the National Education Association in 1892 to bring greater coherence to secondary education in the United States. It recommended a four-year program and a curriculum that emphasized academic subjects for all students
Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education
a commission appointed by the National Education Association to study and make recommendations for reforming American secondary education. Its 1918 report, "The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education", recommended a curriculum based on fundamental personal, social, cultural, and economic needs within a comprehensive institutional setting
junior high school
a two- or three-year school between elementary and high school, commonly for grades 7-9
middle school
a two- to four-year school between elementary and high school, commonly for grades 6-8
land-grant college
a state college or university offering agricultural and mechanical curricula, funded originally by the Morrill Act of 1862
boarding schools
residential institutions where students live and attend school. These schools were used to assimilate Native American children into white culture by insisting they speak only English and study a required industrial training curriculum. In these schools, Native American pupils were not permitted to use their own vernacular languages and engage in tribal customs
"Americanization"
the dominant ideology in public schools with regard to immigrant and minority group children in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The emphasis was on teaching in English rather than the language the children spoke at home and rejecting the values of the minority child in favor of what was termed American values
globalization
the worldwide processes of rapid communication and transportation to crosses national boundaries; it also includes the multinational processes of producing and selling commodities