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Lecture 1 The age of the Earth fossil record 1500-1830 Part 1
Terms in this set (27)
Who's Charles Darwin?
What is evolution? 1st definition
process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioural traits.
What is evolution? 2nd definition
changes that allow an organism to better adapt to its environment
Ancient Egyptians 1st definition
god created the world in 7 days
Ancient Egyptians 2nd definition
after death, a person's soul will face judgement and will be sent to a place of reward or punishment
Norse / Vikings
world was created by gods from a giant's body
the batak believed that a sky goddess came down to the sea with a handful of earth to live here. but the underworld dragon sometimes roll around and cause earthquakes
first humans were regurgitated by a great rainbow serpent in the sky
creator gods made humans out of maize
Life cycle of an eagle
when it is old, it's eyesight dims and its feathers & wings become heavy. to rejuvinate itself, the eagle flies up to to the region of the sun, which burns away the mist over its eyes and burns off its old feathers. the eagle then plunges three times into water and its youth is restored. as a result of age, the eagle's beak grows until it can no longer eat; by striking it against a rock and the eagle breaks its beak which then grows back.
got appearance of young pig but got sharp spines to protect from danger. During harvest, it climbs up tbe vine and shakes the grapes to the ground. then spear 🍇 with its spines so that it can feed its young. can be 🍎 or fig too.
when it is cooked, it can be used to make medicine too. when it notices the approach of a man, it rolls itself into a ball so that its spines can protect it.
can also detect direction of wind. wind from north, closes the north hole of its lair.
Luther's translation of the Bible
depicts the concept of creationism
calculated date of creation: 4004 B.C. 23 October at 9am
counted generations of the bible
based on textual evidence through examination of ancient books
Who is Nicolas Stenos?
A Danish Bishop
Nicolas Stenos 1667
found a gigantic shark, washed up in Italy. dissected and compared the teeth of this shark with these tongue stones and it was identical in every possible details.
- concluded that shark's teeth had become a stone, embedded in solid rock
- got him thinking of how rocks are formed. sediments flow out from rivers into the sea build up into layers
- this is what he thinks about rocks
- creatures when died, their parts would fall into the sediments and be buried.
- tooth of shark shaped the stones
- the object that was fossilized was harder than the mud around it.
Stenos 3 principles
superposition, original horizontality, lateral continuity
Leonardo da Vinci
He noticed that fossils are not randomly scattered as if by a great flood, but grouped together, like with like, as if they were from the same habitat.
Who is John Ray
An English naturalist
John Ray (1627-1705)
argued that the fact living things fit into this world is an evidence of them being designed by God.
- the no. of true species in nature is fixed and limited thus remain constant and unchangeable since creation BY GOD
Robert Hooke's Micrographia (1665)
invention of microscope around this time. invented the term "cell"
Carl Linnaues (1707-1778)
categorized all living things in the world.
- twice number of animals known from John Ray's time
- found that species are clear cut.
- way too many for Noah's ark. so the story must be metaphorical
- categorized animal kingdom into various groups.
-convinced that the world is perfect. extinction is impossible.
-used binomial nomenclature. genus and species.
George Buffon (1707-1788) 1st definition
- estimated the age of earth very differently from Ussher
- impt book Les epoques De La nature (1778)/ epochs of nature (1778)
- estimated the age of earth to be 75 000 years old
George Buffon (1707-1788) 2nd definition
•Species in different parts of the world (like America vs. Europe) are so different they must have been created separately there...
•Speculated that species can change a little to fit environments - but not into other species.
- thinks earth originally is molten larva. completely hot and cooling down
Sir William Hamilton, Britain's envoy to the Spanish court at Naples (city in Italy)
volcanoes made rock and change the shape of the earth
hexagonal columns made by large bodies of larva, cool in rapid way.
- mining allow them to create imaginary Cross sections through the earth (diagonal)
James Hutton (1726-1797) 1st definition
- earth is shaped by methods and causes that are still happening now.
- believed that there is cycle in which new land are always created
- there is engine within the earth so it is eternal
- he is very extreme, his views not accepted TODAY anymkre.
James Hutton (1726-1797) 2nd definition
- rocks deposited horizontally
- bottom layer once become horizontal, means deposited for very long time. but dk why moved to become vertical
- then dk why become uplifted to dry land and then eroded away
- these layers have gone down again because new layers have been deposited on top of them.
- unconformity means not the usual pattern of one layer on top of another
- the cliff side showed how unbelievable the earth is. it must have taken a long time for rocks to be deposited. so the earth must be really old.
William Smith (1769-1839)
-fossils are specific to strata
-order of beds is the same everywhere those rocks are found
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