According to the Constitution:
"The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of American...[H]e may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices...and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint...Officers of the United States...[H]e shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed."
- As chief executive, the president is constitutionally bound to _____ the acts of _____, the judgements of ___ ___, and ____ signed by the U.S
- The duty to "faithfully execute" the laws has been a source of constitutional power for presidents.
- To assist in the various tasks of the chief executive, the president has a ____ ____, which currently consists of more than 2.7 million ___ ____ ___.
The Power of Appointment and Removal:
- You might think that the president, as head of the largest bureaucracy in the U.S has enormous power.
- The president, however, only nominally rules the ___ bureaucracy.
- Most government positions are filled by ___ ___ ____ who generally gain government ____ through a ___ system rather than ____ appointment.
- Therefore, even though the president has important ____ power, it is limited to the _____ and _____ jobs, ___ ___, ____ heads, and the about two thousand lesser jobs.
- This means that most of the 2.7 million federal employees owe no political allegiance to the president.
- They are more likely to owe loyalty to ____ committees or to interest groups representing the sector of society that they serve.
- The president's power to remove from office those officials who are not doing a ____ job, or who do not ____ with the _____ is not explicitly granted by the _____ and has been ____.
- In 1926, however, a Supreme Court decision prevented _____ from interfering with the ____'s ability to fire those _____-branch officials whom the president had ____ with the ____ approval.
Abuses of Executive Power and Impeachment:
Presidents normally leave office either because their first ___ has expired and they have not sough (or ___) ____ or because, having served 2 full terms, they are not allowed to be elected a ___ term (owing to the 22 amendment, passed in 1951).
- Eight presidents have ___ in office. But there is still another way for a president to leave office- by ____ and conviction.
- The Constitution authorizes the ___ and ___ to remove the ____, the ____ ___ or other civil officers of the U.S for committing "___, _____, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
- The impeachment process begins in the ___, which impeaches (accuses) the federal officer involved.
- If the ____ votes to impeach the officer, it draws up articles of impeachment and submits them to the ___ , which conducts the actual ____.
- In the history of the U.S, no president has ever been impeached and also convicted- and thus removed from office-by means of this process.
- President Andrew Johnson, so succeeded to the office after the assassination of Abraham lincoln, was impeached by the House, but acquitted by the ____.
- More than a century later, the House Judiciary Committee approved articles of impeachment against President Richard Nixon for his involvement in the cover-up of the ___ break-in in 1972.
- Informed by members of his own party that he had no hope of surviving the trial in the ____, Nixon ____ on August 9, 1974, before the full ___ voted on the articles. Nixon is the ONLY president to have ___ from office.
- The 2nd president to be impeached by the ____, but not convicted by the ___ was President ___ ____.
The House approves 2 charges against ___:
1. lying to the grand jury about his ___ with ___ ___
2. obstruction of justice
- The articles were then sent to the ____, which acquitted ____.
8 VPs have become ___ because of the ___ of the president.
- John Tyler, the first to do so, took over William Henry Harrison after only 1 month.
- But what should a VP do if a president becomes incapable of carrying out necessary duties while in office?
This question is not addressed in the original constitution. Article II, Section 1, says that "[i]n Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Power and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on [the same powers shall be exercised by] the VP."
- Dwight Eisenhower because ill for the second time in 1958, he entered into a pact with Richard Nixon specifying that the VP could determine whether the president was incapable of carrying out his duties if the president could not communicate.
- 25th amendment in 1967, was passed, establishing procedures in the event of presidential _____.