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- This is a process that involves collecting data about the body's physiological responses of the autonomic nervous system to various thoughts, feelings, and other forms of stimuli. By measuring parameters like skin temperature, muscle tension, and brain waves, biofeedback helps patients learn how they can adjust or control their body's responses. It has been successful in treating a variety of types of disorders, including migraine headaches and some urinary and gastrointestinal problems.
- Second line of defense
Cellular immunitylymphocytes: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes directly attack antigens; helper T lymphocytes stimulate antibody production by B cellsImmunologic Memoryprocess by which B memory cells respond much more rapidly when re-exposed to the same antigen; dramatically shortens and intensifies the immunologic responsechain of infection- Infectious agent - Source / reservoir - Portal of exit - Mode of Transmission - Portal of entry - Susceptible hostFungiA kingdom made up of non-green, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients - singe cell heterotroph - very difficult to get rid ofVectorsAn organism that transmits disease by conveying pathogens from one host to anotherHealth care-associated infections (HAIs)An infection that is acquired in a hospital setting, formerly known as a nosocomial infectionResistant Organismsbacteria that are not susceptible to certain antibioticsBlood borne pathogensDisease-causing organisms transferred through contact with blood or other body fluids - Hep C and HIVlocalized infectionmicrobes enter the body and remains confined to a specific tissue - Causes redness, swelling, warmth, pain, draining, numbness, and tinglingSystemic infectionan infection throughout the body - causes fever, elevated heart and respiratory rates, lethargy, swollen lymph nodes, and tendernessAssesment of Vital signs - Infectionincreased pulse and tempPersonal Protective Equipment (PPE)Protective equipment that blocks exposure to a pathogen or a hazardous material.contact precuations equipmentglovesAirborne precautionsGloves and maskmedical asepsispractices designed to reduce the number and transfer of pathogens; synonym for "clean technique"surgical asepsistechniques used to destroy all pathogenic organisms, also called sterile techniqueDisinfectionis the removal of pathogenic microorganisms; it typically destroys all pathogenic microorganisms except spores from inanimate objects.Sterilization- Sterilization is used on equipment that is entering a sterile body cavity. - Many items are purchased as sterile or can be sterilized through physical or chemical means.aseptic techniqueused to disinfect skinPlanning- Identify patient capabilities - Identify resources available to patient: economic, psychosocial, physical - Collaborate with family, especially at discharge - Set goals that are patient/family centered and are measurable. - Patient once home will continue to maintain good personal hygiene by the end of the week. - Patient will consume 50% of all meals by the end of the weekPassive Imunityreceipt of antibodies from another person (pregnancy/lactation) or infusion (tetanus immunoglobulin)Bacteria- Single-cell organisms, named by shape - Classified +/- oxygen, staining qualities - Vary in size, shape, growth pattern, means of replicationViruses- Smallest microorganisms; not killed by antibiotics - Reproduce inside living host cellsSource of Infection- Reservoir or host - Inanimate objects (contaminated equipment, medications, air, food, water) - Humans - AnimalsPortal of Exit- the means by which the pathogen escapes from the reservoir of infection - Examples: Nose, mouth, breaks in skin, urinary tract, anus, any bodily fluidIncidents of HAIs- One in 20 patients get Health care-Associated Infections - 2 million people in the U.S. contract HAI - 99,000 die annually of HAIs - 80% of the pathogens are transferred by touch - 40% of health care personnel adhere to hand hygieneDrug resistancemicroorganisms developing resistance to medications that had been previously successful at treating the infectionDrug resistant organisms - Community- Salmonella and Shigella - TB - MRSA - Strep pneumonia - Haemophilus influenzae - N. gonorrhoeaeDrug resistant organisms - Heath care facilities- MRSA - VRSA - VRE - Clostridium difficileSepsisS - Shivering E - Extreme Pain P - Pale skin S - Sleepy I - I feel I might die S - Short of breathSusceptibility - Age- Infants' immature immune systems - Elderly at risk for respiratory, urinary, and skin infectionsSusceptibility - Gender- Females at greater risk for UTIs - Males with enlarged prostate at risk for UTIsSusceptibility - Culture/religioninfluence ability/desire to seek medical attentionMore susceptible to infection- Disabilities causing immobility - Obesity linked to increased riskInfection AssesmentCBCcomplete blood countWBCWhite blood cell countESRErythrocyte Sedimentation RateRisk Assesment- Chronic diseases - Medications - Altered skin integrity - Lack of proper immunizationsStandard Precautions- Previously called Universal Precautions - Assumes blood and body fluid of ANY patient could be infectious - Recommends PPE (personal protective equipment) and other infection control practices to prevent transmission in any healthcare setting • - Decisions about PPE use determined by type of clinical interaction with patientcontact precaustions- used when a known or suspected contagious disease may be present - Transmission may occur through: - Direct transmission (contact with the patient). - Indirect transmission (contact with equipment or items in the patient's environment).Airborne Precautions- Used when known or suspected contagious diseases can be transmitted by means of small droplets or particles that can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods. - Examples: Varicella (chicken pox), Rubeola (measles), TBDroplet precautions- Used when known or suspected contagious diseases can be transmitted through large droplets suspended in the air. - Influenza, Strep throat, Mumps, rubella, pertussis, pneumonias, Meningococcal sepsisProtective isolationis used for patients who have compromised immune systems. - Negative-pressure room with HEPA filtration - No live plants, raw food, or cheeses (may harbor pathogens) - Assess carefully for signs of infectionNursing Diagnoses Common to Infections- Risk of Infection - Knowledge Deficit - Impaired Skin Integrity - Imbalanced Nutrition: Less (or more) than body requirements