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noverbal comm

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How does our reliance on verbal content and nonverbal behavior change as we get older?
Young children rely much more on verbal content, older children show a mixed pattern, and adults rely much more on nonverbal qualities.
2. What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class?
Pitch
volume
rate
rhythm
articulation
glottis control
2. What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class? Pitch
a. Vibration of vocal chords
b. Vocal variety (animated speakers)
c. Resonance:
a. reverberation within your head
the lower the pitch->the more resonance
lots of resonance->booming voice
less resonance->very thin voice (example: michael jackson)
2. What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class? volume
how loud it is
2. What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class? rate
a. Some people talk faster
b. Normal rate =125-190 words per minute
c. We like to talk to people who have a similar tempo
2. What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class? rhythm
a. Hesitant, smooth, sing-songy, jerky
2. What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class? articulation
a. Meshing words together vs. speaking clearly
2. What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class? glottis
. Glottis control
a. Amount of air going through your throat
b. when we are more physiologically aroused our throat will tense up and we will get less air- this is the answer, less air= thinner voices that sound more tense
c. More air =less control (breathiness)
3. What are the 2 general vocalic behaviors discussed in class? What are examples of each?
1. Specific vocalic sounds (vocal characteristics)
a. Crying, laughing, groaning

2. Vocal segregators (fillers)
a. "Um, uh, like, you know, uh huh, mmmm"
4. What non-sounds were discussed in class?
● Pauses & speech latency
○ Pauses: silences within your own speech
○ speech latency: pauses between people
○ Due to stress, nervousness, complexity (trying to process a lot of info)
○ Less pauses (seen as more authoritative, attractive, professional)
○ Filled pauses (detract from fluency) ex: umm, ah are filled pauses non sounds?? no they arent
○ unfilled pauses seen as more stylistic and positive
● Silence
○ Reflects cognitive activity
○ Functions= evaluation, showing emotion
5. What were the extra-linguistic features discussed in class?
● Rate, rhythm
○ Need to hear someone speak to determine this
● Duration of speech
○ Males speak more in a formal setting; females speak more in a more casual setting
● Dialect & accent
○ Dialect = slang
○ Accent = how you pronounce words
■ foreign accent syndrome - because of a brain injury, a person suddenly speaks with a foreign accent-- this happened to my brother.
6. Are spectrograms useful in identifying speakers by voice?
They are not very reliable. Voices are not like fingerprints and two may appear very similar.
7. What qualities are associated with an attractive voice? What personality
characteristics are typically associated with an attractive voice?
● Attractive voices:
○ moderate to high volume for females
○ more resonance
○ less monotone
○ less nasal
○ lower in pitch (for males); moderate pitch (for females)
○ More articulation
● Personality characteristics= less neurotic, extroverted, warm, open, agreeable, powerful, honest, conscientious
8. What vocal qualities do we consider unpleasant? What personality characteristics are typically associated with these qualities?
● Unpleasant voices:
○ tense (pitch goes up, throat closes up)
■ perceived as anxious, uncooperative, and not smart
○ nasal
■ perceived as whiney, argumentative, lazy
○ flat/monotone
■ perceived as bored, sluggish, withdrawn
○ thin/lack of resonance
■ perceived as immature, young, emotional, touchy, sensitive
○ throaty or raspy
■ perceived as sophisticated on men but also less smart and more careless

Personality characteristics - more sluggish, colder, more withdrawn, less intelligent, anxious
9. What characteristics (demographic, personality) can we typically judge from people's voices? -
Sex - easiest to detect because of pitch
● Females talk faster, vary in pitch, have fluency, and articulate more.
● We're less accurate with children and older adults. as we grow older females voice gets lower in pitch and males voice gets higher in pitch

Age - Accurate within 5 years as voice gets more resonant and raspy with age.

Social status- (harder to determine)
● high socioeconomic status has more slow, articulated, controlled voice

Race/ethnicity - might be controversial
● linguistic profiling (constant content: have different races recite the same thing)
● Video clip on linguistic profiling- you can tell if someone is black or white over the phone

Personality
● Extroversion - talk louder/longer, more fluency, faster rate
● Masculinity - lower and less expressive pitch, less articulation, louder
● Type A (ambitious, aggressive, workaholic) - faster & uneven rate, interrupt a lot, louder voice
● Dominance - louder, interpret more, use less filled pauses (umm/ahh)

Emotions
● rely on tempo/rate and pitch to detect emotions
● high physiological arousal coded very similarly
10. How do we modify our vocalics when talking to children? To males? To females?
● Children - high-pitched, singsong, slow, rhythmic, repetitive, simplified baby talk (motherese)
○ even young children know how to speak this way to babies and pets
● Males - men are spoken to more loudly by both men and women.
12. What 3 methods do researchers use to eliminate the content of speech to determine the effects of vocal qualities?
● Constant Content - see if people can detect emotions from voice by having everyone read the same thing.
● Meaningless Content - have people count to 10
● Filtering/Splicing - record a voice, chop it up and then put back together. The words make no sense so you don't get the content, just the vocal qualities.
13. What emotions are easier to communicate and recognize through the voice?
● Joy, hate, and anger are more easily recognized in the voice than fear and disgust
14. What 2 vocalic qualities tend to be influential in judgments of emotional expressions?
● Tempo
● Pitch Variation (intensity)
16. What is the normal speaking rate? Up to how many words per minute can we comprehend?
• The normal speaking rate is between 125-190 words per minute.
• We can comprehend up to 250-275 words per minute...then comprehension significantly decreases
17. What vocal qualities are related to persuasion?
• Fluent, non hesitant speech, faster rate
• Less pauses
• More pitch variation
• Louder voice
• **Fast speech (most persuasive)
18. How are filled and non-filled pauses perceived? How can you influence speech latencies?
● Filled pauses - associated with generally undesirable characteristics - emotional arousal and jammed cognitive processes. inferior stylistic achievement
● Unfilled pauses - superior (more concise)
● Too many of either may lead to negative evaluations by listener
○ too many unfilled: listeners perceived speaker to be anxious, angry or contemptuous
○ too many filled (um, ahh): listeners perceived speaker to be anxious or bored
● Speech latency was influenced when an interviewer did not respond to an interviewee's statement, 65% of interviewees began to speak again (Matarazzo study)
○ also seen was response matching with interviewers controlling the interviewee's length of utterance by increasing the length of his own utterances
19. Based on the text as well as the Jaworski (2008) reading, what is your overall conclusion about the meaning of silence?
Silence can mean virtually anything. The meaning of silence can only be determined after careful analysis of the communicators, subject matter, time, place, culture, and so forth.
Five Functions of Silence according to Jaworski reading -
● A Linkage function - silence may bond people or separate them
● An affecting function - may heal or wound
● A revelation function - may make something known (self-exploration) or may hide information from others
● A judgemental function - may signal assent and favor or dissent and disfavor
● An activating function - may signal deep thoughtfulness (work) or mental inactivity
1. What do noverbal (and verbal) behaviors in greetings signal?
● Signal the beginning of an interaction
● Convey information about the relationship
● Reduce uncertainties
● Signal ways to better know the other
● Structure the ensuing dialogue
2. What nonverbal behaviors are prevalent in greetings?
eye flash, smiling, shaking hands, head toss, wave, a fist bump
3. What nonverbal behaviors are used in the 4 turn-taking behaviors?
● Turn Yielding (speaker) - rising or lowering of pitch, decreased loudness, slowed tempo, drawl on last syllable, use of utterances, unfilled pauses, relaxed body, gestures rest, gazing
● Turn Maintaining (speaker) - loudness increases, gestures don't rest, upright posture, increased filled pauses, light touching listener, averted eye gaze
● Turn Requesting (listener) - upraised finger, audible inhaling, straight posture, speed up speaker w/nods & utterances, stutter starts (interruptions), simultaneous talk
● Turn Denying (listener) - relaxed pose maintained, maintain silence, avert gaze, encourage speaker to continue w/nods & utterances, repeat last words of speaker
4. What nonverbal behaviors do we use to initiate leave-taking?
• Decreasing eye gaze
• Good-night kiss
• Smile, hand shake,
• Looking at watch
position oneself closer to the exit
hands on the knees about to push up to leave
5. Based on the text, what flirting behaviors were observed in bars?
● Early signaling is performed by women who are the "selectors."
● Three types of eye gaze
1. a room-encompassing glance 2. a short, darting glance at a specific person
3. a fixed gaze of at least 3 seconds at a specific other
● Smiling at a specific person
● Laughing and giggling at another's comments
● tossing one's head and stroking hair, grooming, primping, adjusting clothes
● a "solitary dance" keeping time to the music with visible movements
● stroking the "shaft" of a drink ;)
6. What nonverbal behaviors indicate immediacy in developing relationships?
● more forward lean
● closer proximity
● more eye gaze
● more openness of arms and body
● more direct body orientation
● more touching
● more postural relaxation
● more positive facial and vocal expressions
● approach phase, acknowledgement phase, interaction, sexual, resolution
7. How does the sequencing of immediacy behaviors affect judgments of interactants?
In the Clore, Wiggins, & Itkin study, people rated cold and warm behaviors with liking or disliking and found that when viewers were exposed to a combination of behaviors that the man was more attracted to the woman who went from cold to warm more than the woman who was warm the entire time. Also the woman who was cold the entire time was seen as more attractive than the woman who went from warm to cold.
Why - the judges felt the man was responsible for the female's change in behavior. If the man had a part in turning the female from cold to warm, then he could take credit for the change and feel better about the interaction.
Cold to Warm > Entirely Warm
Entirely Cold > Warm to Cold
8. What are the immediacy patterns of interaction in established relationships?
They exhibit quantitatively less nonverbal behavior typically associated with affection and intimacy than they did in forming the relationship. It is often the quality of the act, not the frequency, that is important
9. Based on the theories discussed in the "Mutual Influence" section, what do the theories have in common? What conclusion can be drawn from them?
● Equilibrium Theory - if the nonverbal behavior in one or more area signals an increase or decrease in intimacy, the other person compensates by engaging in behaviors necessary to achieve equilibrium.

● Discrepancy-arousal theory - we all have expectations about other people's behavior. Increases and decreases that violate the other person's expectations will lead to arousal or cognitive activation. moderate arousal results from moderate discrepancies from what had been expected; these are pleasurable, and reciprocity ensues. LArge discrepancies from what had been expected are highly arousing, leading to negative affective response and compensation

● Interaction adaptation theory - We judge others behavior based on preconceived requirements, expectations, and desires and when their behavior makes deviations, we attempt to compensate by trying to match it.
The conclusion is that we like to keep a balance in the level of intimacy in established relationships and will adjust our behaviors to reestablish the equilibrium.
10. According to the Andersen (2008) reading, what does Cognitive Valence Theory (CVT) try to explain? What are the major components of the theory? What leads to the possible positive and negative outcomes?
Cognitive Valence Theory - HOW INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS ARE CREATED AND MAINTAINED - If your partner increases immediacy in a way that leads to high levels of arousal, you will become defensive and avoid him or her. If your partner increases immediacy in a way that leads to moderate levels of arousal change, you might approach or avoid the partner, depending on factors such as the relationship, situation, mood, etc...
Major components (Cognitive Schemata)-
● Culture
● Personality
● Interpersonal Valence
● Situation
● State
● The Relationship
If ANY of the 6 schemas are violated, behavior is considered negative and compensation occurs
If NONE of 6 schemas are violated, behavior is considered positive and reciprocation occurs
12. What are the 4 components of impressions?
1. Credibility - trustworthy, expert (consistency between verbal and nonverbal)
2. Likability - likable, nice
3. Interpersonal attractiveness - Charisma, expressiveness, interesting, dynamic
4. Confidence/dominance - assertiveness, confidence
13. What nonverbal behaviors typically help in creating a favorable impression?
● Vocalics - attractive voice with greater volume, expressive, short pauses
● Kinesics - leaning forward, closer proximity, no tension leakage
● Eye Behavior - high level of eye contact but not constant
● Facial - genuine smiles
● Appearance - meet expectations regarding clothing. Physically attractive
14. What nonverbal behaviors do we stereotypically think (or perceive) a dominant person exhibits?
● more gaze
● smiles less
● more facial expressiveness
● open posture
● initiates touch
● faster rate of speech
● more interruptions
● less interpersonal distance
● filled pauses
15. What nonverbal behaviors do people in dominant positions actually exhibit?
Confirmed Perceptions:
● Greater facial expression
● more open posture
● more volume
● more interruptions
● more vocal relaxation
● less interpersonal distance
● less filled pauses
● touch depend and varies

Unconfirmed (No Effect):
● gaze
● no effect for smiling
● no effect for gestures
● no effect for rate.
Notes on Research--the voice conveys dominance more than visual cues.
16. What nonverbal behaviors increase persuasiveness?
● Proxemics - closer proximity
● Appearance - attractive and appropriate dress
● Haptics - light touch
● Eye Behavior - increase gaze
17. What 2 major conclusions were discussed in relation to nonverbal behavior and persuasion?
● Nonverbals have at least as strong of an impact on persuasion as verbal factors.
● Positive expectancy violations produce more persuasion than conformity to expectations - if you violate expectations in a positive way, then you are even more persuasive.
Theories
● communication accommodation theory: to make a good impression you want to converge to the communication behaviors they are displaying
● expectancy violations theory: try to figure out what those expectations are and exceed those expectations (positive violation)
18. Based on the Forbes and Jackson (2008) reading, what NV behaviors were exhibited by interviewees who were accepted for the position?
● used more direct eye contact and less gaze avoidance than did those who were rejected.
● showed less "wandering" of the eyes than did those who were rejected or put on the reserve list.
● used more smiling and less neutral facial expressions than did those who were rejected or put on the reserve list.
● showed more head nodding and shaking than did those who were rejected.
19. How do the behaviors of liars differ from truth-tellers?
● Liars are less forthcoming.
● Liars tell stories that seem less plausible and with fewer details.
● Liars make fewer spontaneous corrections while telling their stories and are less likely to admit they cannot remember something.
● Liars make a more negative impression.
● Liars are more tense.
20. How accurate are we in detecting lies?
People are only about 50-60% accurate in identifying whether strangers are lying to them or not.
3. What does social information processing theory suggest?
We can develop just as intimate and effective relationships in a virtual environment, but it may take longer.
4. What is hyperpersonal communication?
In the virtual environment you can be much more strategic and deceptive which may lead to problems when you actually meet the other person face to face.
● more control over self-presentation
● leads to more idealized images (you can't see the other person's faults)
● may feel closer to the person
5. What were the findings of the CMC studies covered in class?
In the past, we thought the lack of NV cues would be a problem, but current research shows that we can develop just as intimate and effective relationships online it just takes longer.
We do this by more self-disclosure, more direct questions, and getting more to the point quicker.
Facebook -
● having more "friends" does not give you benefits
● an attractive photo results in the Halo Effect
● no photo is better than an unattractive photo
● if your friends are more attractive than you are, then you are seen as more attractive
● postings by friends are more believable than your own postings when there is an inconsistency about your attractiveness
● Facebook fans do worse in exams
6. What did Yee et al. (2008) find out about proxemics and eye contact in the virtual world?
Our social interactions in online virtual environments are governed by the same social norms as social interactions in the physical world. Male-male dyads have a larger interpersonal distance than female-female dyads. Eye gaze regulates conversational flow. The more two avatars were talking, the more likely they were to be looking at each other, but if someone violates the accepted social distance of 12 feet, the less likely they will maintain mutual eye contact.
1. What are the different explanations for sex differences?
• Power hypothesis (feminist perspective)
o Male behavior-dominant behavior
o Female behavior- sub-ordinate behavior
o Males have more power, females less
o Cant necessarily compare power and ex-what teacher says

• Social cultural approach
o When kids are growing up, men kind of socialize to have different goals, more competitive, sports
o Females are socialized to group harmony, ppl should follow rules, be nice to each other etc. more relationship oriented Ex) board games (not risk or monopoly)

• Social role theory
o We have gender roles, a male role and a female role, depends more on the role you are enacting, the position you take,
o So if you take a managerial position you are going to be more dominant so you're going to take the male role because those are the behaviors that are affected to that role. Regardless if you are male or female
- Same sex relationships, one person acts more dominant than the other
2. In general, are the sex differences large?
Sex only explains about 5%
• The normal curve for dominance overlaps for males and females
• Difference for males and females not much of a difference (average)
• Some differences between sexes, but not that big
3. What are the consistent sex differences regarding the different nonverbal channels?
• Encoding/decoding skills
o Females>males
• Appearance
o Females are more influenced by dress and appearance
o Females critique each other more

• Proxemics
o Females maintain smaller distances from others and are approached more closely
o Females also tolerate spatial intrusion better, males feel more crowded faster than females

• Haptics (touch)
o Females give, receive, and reciprocate more touch (f care more about relationship, m care about gender)

• Posture
o Males use more expansive and relaxed posture (take more space)
o Females are restricted by their clothing on the way they sit

• Gestures
o Males use more expansive gesturing
o Females use more expressive gesturing

• Facial expressions
o Females smile and laugh more and are more expressive
o Have been socialized to use more positive facial expression
o Males have a default neutral face

• Gaze
o Females>males in frequency, duration, reciprocity, while listening, while speaking

• Vocalics
o Females have a higher pitch, have more vocal variety, use more pronunciation; Males use higher volume, have higher resonance.
4. When are females more likely to initiate touch? When are males more likely to initiate touch?
When the couple is 40 or older or married the female will initiate touch more.
When the relationship is in the beginning phases, the male will initiate touch more.
5. How does the visual dominance ratio vary by sex and status/expertise?
● Males have higher VDR when it is not known who is in charge.
● Mixed dyads - the one with the more expertise is the dominant one.
● VDR= (% eye contact while speaking) / (% eye contact while listening)
6. What is the sex difference regarding persuasiveness?
Males have to appear confident.
Females have to be confident and likeable.
1. What is the common fallacy regarding the effects of advertising?
We think we are immune to what influences other people. We have a built-in bias against recognizing what influences us.
2. What subtle message do we get from advertising that makes it so powerful?
Success, beauty, and social acceptance are the keys to happiness, and stereotypes have validity.
3. Which emotional expression may be the biggest turnoff for voters? What nonverbals are associated with this emotion?
Expressions of fear and uncertainty - looking down, hesitating, making rapid, jerky movements, or seeming to freeze.
4. What are the effects when students perceive their teachers as exhibiting immediacy behaviors?
Students are more likely to like the teacher and the course.
Students report that they would like to take another course from that instructor.
Students feel they learn more.
5. What general roles do nonverbal behaviors play in the therapeutic setting?
● Understanding the disorder - defining different disorders like depression
● Diagnosis - reaching the correct conclusion
● Therapy - solving the problem
● Relationship -developing a positive interpersonal relationship with client
● Physicians who are better at decoding NV cues have patients who are more satisfied and more likely to keep their appointments.
● Patients are most satisfied when their physician's voice tone was negative, but combined with positive words.
6. What are the differences between high contact cultures and low contact cultures?
• High contact
o Closer proximities
o More direct body orientation
o More touch
o More mutual eye gaze
o Latin American countries
o Arab countries
o N. African countries
o Mediterranean countries
o Russia
o Indonesia


• Low contact
o Minimize eye contact
o More distance
o Less touch
o Less direct body orientation
o Less mutual eye gaze
o US
o N. European countries
o Asian countries (one of the lowest)
Which cultures could be classified as high contact? Low contact?
High -Central and S. America, Southern Europe, and the Middle East
Low - United States, Asia
7. What are the differences between individualistic and collectivist cultures? Which cultures could be classified as individualistic? Collectivist?
• Individualistic
o Focus on individual self
o Independence of thought and action
o Allowed to make decisions of what's good for yourself
o Success through individual abilities
o If there is a problem one person is blamed and pointed out
o More vocal variety
o US, Australia, Canada, N. European countries

• Collectivist
o Focus on group
o Thought and action dependent on group goals
o Individual success is through group success
o They have some say in your life
o If something happens the whole group is blamed not just one individual
o Communal eating places
o Less intense emotions displayed
o Latin America, arab, asian, some African countries
8. What are the differences between high context and low context cultures? Which cultures could be classified as high context? Low context?
High context
● Rely more on nonverbal behavior to get message across
● indirectness, implicit messages are common
● higher tolerance for ambiguity
● the role of the listener is emphasized - up to listener to figure out message
● Arab countries, Eastern European, Asian, Latin, Indonesia

Low context
● Rely more on verbal
● Direct, explicit messages are common
● lower tolerance for ambiguity
● role of speaker is emphasized - if there is misunderstanding, it is speaker's fault
● United States, Canada, Northern European, Australia
12. What are some cultural differences in greeting behaviors? Touch? Eye contact? Eating? Lines?
1.) Touch: Eastern European kisses, Western handshake, Asian limp handshake (Japanese bow or namaste, big personal bubble), Korea will not touch your hand when returning change, Latin America toe-to-toe close proxemics, Iran hold hands, India strict gender rules on touch

2.) Eye Contact: US it's sign of respect, Asian eye avoidance is respectful

3.) Eating: (Britain - Continental Style - keep fork in left hand, knife in right hand, fork prongs pointed down when slicing, hands above table), Korea rude to eat on street, Indian eat with right hand only, Asian don't refuse food for the third time when asked

4.) Lines: US makes lines, Asian/Latin America/Greece makes hoards
13. What examples did Axtell (2008) use to show cultural differences regarding nonverbal behaviors?
GREETING - Each signal suggests openness and a clear sign that the greeter is not carrying a weapon.
● Eskimos bang the other party with a hand either on the head or shoulders.
● Polynesian men embrace and then rub each other's back
● Maori tribes people rub noses
● Latin America abrazo
● Tibetan tribesmen stick their tongues out at each other
● Japanese bow to each other - the person of lower rank bows first and lowest.
● The French are the most "handshakingest" of all
● Bolivians are the "Greatest Greeters" with handshake and clap on the back.

Beckoning -
● Europe and Latin America - extend the arm, hand out, palm down, and then make a scratching motion with the fingers.
● France - catch the waiter's eye and then nod the head backward quickly.
● Colombia - clap the hands lightly
● Mexico - purse the lips and make a kissing noise
14. What three conclusions did Manusov (2008) draw from the previous research?
● If we think that certain things are likely to happen, those thoughts will affect how we judge another person
● We make evaluations of people based on the behaviors they use when talking to us
● We act in ways that are influenced by stereotypes we have, which in turn can affect the way our conversational partner acts in return.
15. What were Manusov's major findings?
She found that stereotypes do affect what people see and how they behave during conversations with someone from a different culture. However, people often re-evaluate their stereotypical views if a person acts in ways that violate cultural stereotypes.

● What people bring with them to a conversation with a person from another culture will have at least some impact on what they see and how they behave.

● People have the chance to alter the evaluations others make of them and potentially of other people in their group.

● In cases where expectancies are more pronounced or when circumstances dictate greater weight to holding onto expectations, the more direct influence of stereotypes will likely prove more potent.